Thelypteris confluens (Thunb.) C.V. Morton

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Thelypteris confluens

Photo: Petra Ballings
Nyagombe falls, Nyanga N.P

Thelypteris confluens

Photo: Petra Ballings
Nyagombe falls, Nyanga N.P

Thelypteris confluens

Photo: Petra Ballings
Besna Kobila

Thelypteris confluens

Photo: Petra Ballings
Besna Kobila

Thelypteris confluens

Photo: Petra Ballings
Besna Kobila

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Dryopteris thelypteris sensu Sim
Nephrodium thelypteris sensu Sim
Common names:
Frequency:
Status: Native
Description:
Rhizome long, creeping and branching, 2-3 mm in diameter; rhizome scales up to 2 mm long, dark brown, ovate, nonpersistent. Fronds spaced 1-5 cm apart, erect or arching, not proliferous, herbaceous. Stipe up to 40 cm long, pale brown, often blackened towards the base, subglabrous. Lamina up to 60 × 15 cm, lanceolate to elliptic in outline, deeply 2-pinnatifid, apex tapering to a point with a pinnatifid terminal segment, lower pinnae slightly reduced and widely spaced. Pinnae linear to oblong-lanceolate, deeply pinnatifid into oblong and rounded to triangular and acute ultimate lobes, margins entire; under surface of costae with or without hairs and with pale brown ovate scales, upper surface hairless; veins not meeting the veins of the adjacent lobes. Rhachis pale brown, hairless. Sori up to 18 per lobe, round, situated halfway between the costa and the margin; indusia kidney-shaped, membranous, hairless or with short marginal hairs.
Notes: Found together with Cyclosorus interruptus which has a zigzag soral pattern, one pair of veins meeting below and a pair of veins meeting at the sinus, leathery pinnae that are incised a third to halfway to the costa.
Thelypteris confluens look for: creeping rhizome, veins not anastomosing, small scales on costae below, pinnae herbaceous and pinnatifid.
Derivation of specific name: confluens: converging, running together; may be a reference to the intertwined rhizomes that give rise to extented, densely clustered stands.
Habitat: In full sun or light shade of marshy areas with perennial surface water.
Altitude range: (metres) Up to 2060 m
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in southern Africa, central and E. tropical Africa, Madagascar, southern India, Thailand, Sumatra, Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand.
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W,C,E,S
Growth form(s): Terrestrial.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Sunday 17 February 2013
Literature:

Burrows, J.E. (1990). Southern African Ferns and Fern Allies. Frandsen, Sandton. Pages 258 - 259. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 43.

Burrows, J.E. , Burrows, S.M. (1993). An annotated check-list of the pteridophytes of Malawi Kirkia 14(1) Page 95.

Crouch, N.R., Klopper, R.R., Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (2011). Ferns of Southern Africa, A comprehensive guide Struik Nature Pages 672 - 673. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 15.

Jacobsen, W.B.G. (1983). The Ferns and Fern Allies of Southern Africa. Butterworths, Durban and Pretoria. Pages 395 - 396. (Includes a picture).

Kornas, J. (1979). Distribution and ecology of the Pteridophytes in Zambia Polska Akademia Nauk Wydzial II Nauk Biologicznych Pages 88 - 89.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 10.

Roux, J.P. (2001). Conspectus of Southern African Pteridophyta. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 13 Page 117.

Roux, J.P. (2009). Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighbouring islands Pages 211 - 212.

Schelpe, E.A.C.L.E. (1970). Pteridophyta Flora Zambesiaca Pages 190 - 192. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 16.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 179.


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Other sources of information about Thelypteris confluens:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Thelypteris confluens
Flora of Caprivi: Thelypteris confluens
Flora of Malawi: Thelypteris confluens
Flora of Mozambique: Thelypteris confluens
Flora of Zambia: Thelypteris confluens

External websites:

African Plant Database: Thelypteris confluens
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Thelypteris confluens
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Thelypteris confluens
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Thelypteris confluens
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Thelypteris confluens
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Thelypteris confluens
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Thelypteris confluens
Ispot Southern Africa : Thelypteris confluens
JSTOR Plant Science: Thelypteris confluens
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Thelypteris confluens
Tropicos: Thelypteris confluens
West African Plants database: Thelypteris confluens


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-16

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2016). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Thelypteris confluens.
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=101700, retrieved 29 July 2016

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