Panicum maximum Jacq.

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Panicum maximum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Haslemere lane, Umwinsidale, Harare

Panicum maximum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Haslemere lane, Umwinsidale, Harare

Panicum maximum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Haslemere Lane, Umwinsidale, Harare

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Common names: Guinea grass (English)
Frequency: Common
Status: Native
Tall tufted perennial, usually 1-2 m tall, occasionally much taller. Inflorescence a large open panicle, pyramidal or oblong in outline with the lower branches often whorled. Spikelets 3-4.5 mm, glabrous or pubescent, sometimes overtopped by long hairs from tip of pedicel; lower glume broadly ovate, 1/3 to 1/2 length of spikelet, 3-nerved; upper glume ovate-oblong, 5-nerved, acute; lower lemma ovate-oblong, 5-nerved; upper lemma strongly transversely rugose.
Notes: A very common and variable grass, distinguished by its size and the strongly rugose upper lemma.
Derivation of specific name: maximum: largest
Habitat: In a wide variety of natural and disturbed habitats, usually in shade and often preferring damp situations.
Altitude range: (metres)
Flowering time:Sep - Mar
Worldwide distribution:
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W,C,E,S
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species: Cnaphalocrocis trapezalis (Larval foodplant)
Mocis proverai (Larval food plant)
Antigastra catalaunalis (Larval food plant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Heath, A. & Heath, R. (2009). Field Guide to the Plants of Northern Botswana including the Okavango Delta Kew Publishing Page 482. (Includes a picture).

Pickering, H. & Roe, E. (2009). Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area Helen Pickering, London Page 96. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 142.

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 151.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 191.


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Other sources of information about Panicum maximum:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Panicum maximum
Flora of Caprivi: Panicum maximum
Flora of Malawi: Panicum maximum
Flora of Mozambique: Panicum maximum
Flora of Zambia: Panicum maximum

External websites:

African Plant Database: Panicum maximum
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Panicum maximum
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Panicum maximum
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Panicum maximum
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Panicum maximum
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Panicum maximum
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Panicum maximum
Ispot Southern Africa : Panicum maximum
JSTOR Plant Science: Panicum maximum
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Panicum maximum
Kew Monocotyledon checklist: Panicum maximum
Tropicos: Panicum maximum
West African Plants database: Panicum maximum

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-16

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2016). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Panicum maximum., retrieved 25 May 2016

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