Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C.C. Berg

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Milicia excelsa

Photo: Bart Wursten
National Botanic Garden, Harare.

Milicia excelsa

Photo: Bart Wursten
National Botanic Garden, Harare.

Milicia excelsa

Photo: Bart Wursten
National Botanic Garden, Harare.

Milicia excelsa

Photo: Bart Wursten
National Botanic Garden, Harare.

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Chlorophora alba A. Chev.
Chlorophora excelsa (Welw.) Benth. & Hook. f.
Chlorophora tenuifolia Engl.
Milicia africana Sim
Morus excelsa Welw.
Common names: Iroko (English) Mvule (Shona)
Frequency: Very rare
Status: Native
Description:
Medium to large tree. Bark pale grey, rough and flaking in to squarish pieces. Leaves elliptic to oblong with an acuminate tip, dark green with conspicuous yellowish midrib and veins; base more or less cordate. Flowers unisexual on different trees. Male spikes much longer (8-20 cm) than the female (2-3 cm). Fruit fleshy, ellipsoid, mulberry-like, brown when ripe.
Notes: Confined to the Haroni / Rusitu area and to the Chilojo Cliffs by the Runde river in Gonarezhou, where there are only a handful of mature trees.
Derivation of specific name: excelsa: lofty, tall
Habitat: In moist forest.
Altitude range: (metres) 300 - 500 m
Flowering time:Aug - Oct
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in tropical Africa from Guinee-Bissau to Ethiopia and southwards to Angola and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe distribution: E,S
Growth form(s): Tree.
Endemic status:
Red data list status: Endangered
Insects associated with this species: Cyrestis camillus sublineata (Larval foodplant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Tuesday 9 September 2014
Literature:

Berg, C.C. (1991). Moraceae Flora Zambesiaca 9(6) Pages 16 - 18. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (2003). Figs of Southern and South-Central Africa Umdaus Press, South Africa Pages 327 - 331. (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 130.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 234. As Chlorophora excelsa

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 63.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 80.

White, F., Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Chapman, J.D. (2001). Evergreen forest flora of Malawi Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Pages 393 - 395. (Includes a picture).


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Other sources of information about Milicia excelsa:

Our websites:

Flora of Malawi: Milicia excelsa
Flora of Mozambique: Milicia excelsa
Flora of Zambia: Milicia excelsa

External websites:

African Plant Database: Milicia excelsa
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Milicia excelsa
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Milicia excelsa
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Milicia excelsa
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Milicia excelsa
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Milicia excelsa
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Milicia excelsa
Ispot Southern Africa : Milicia excelsa
JSTOR Plant Science: Milicia excelsa
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Milicia excelsa
Tropicos: Milicia excelsa
West African Plants database: Milicia excelsa


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-16

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2016). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Milicia excelsa.
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=120150, retrieved 3 December 2016

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