Strychnos spinosa Lam.

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Strychnos spinosa

Photo: Bart Wursten
Mukuvisi Woodland, office area

Strychnos spinosa

Photo: Bart Wursten
Mukuvisi Woodland, office area

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Strychnos tonga Gilg
Common names: Mutamba-mun'ono (Shona) Spiny monkey-orange (English) Umhahli (Ndebele) Umngono (Ndebele)
Frequency: Common
Status: Native
Description:
Shrub or small deciduous tree. Bark rough and flaking but not deeply fissured and corky. Branches often armed with curved or straight spines, not always clearly visible. Leaves opposite, elliptic, oblong to ovate, 3-7-veined from the base, variably hairy or hairless. Flowers borne on small lateral spur-branchlets or terminally, in small compact heads, creamy-green. Fruits spherical, up to 12 cm, hard-shelled, speckled-green, turning yellow-brown, edible and tasty but are said to be not as good as those of Strychnos cocculoides.
Notes:
Derivation of specific name: spinosa: spiny
Habitat: In open woodland and riverine fringes.
Altitude range: (metres) 980 - 1660 m
Flowering time:Oct - Jan
Worldwide distribution: Tropical Africa to KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape, South Africa
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W,C,E,S
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Sunday 11 March 2007
Literature:

Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Pages 930 - 931.

Coates Palgrave, K. et al. (1956). Trees of Central Africa National Publications Trust, Salisbury. Pages 204 - 207. (Includes a picture).

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Pages 538 - 539. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 113.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 268.

Drummond, R.B. (1981). Common Trees of the Central Watershed Woodlands of Zimbabwe. Natural Resources Board, Harare. Pages 190 - 191. (Includes a picture).

Fabian, A. & Germishuizen, G. (1997). Wild Flowers of Northern South Africa. Fernwood Press, Vlaeburg. Pages 298 - 299. (Includes a picture).

Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1969). Loganiaceae of Africa VIII Strychnos III. Revision of the African species Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 69(1) Pages 239 - 248. (Includes a picture).

Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1983). Loganiaceae (inc. Buddlejaceae) Flora Zambesiaca 7(1) Pages 371 - 373.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 59.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 100.

Schmidt, E., Lötter, M. & McCleland, W. (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park Jacana, Johannesburg, South Africa Pages 544 - 545. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 108.

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 118.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 217.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (1997). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Struik, South Africa Pages 254 - 255. (Includes a picture).


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Other sources of information about Strychnos spinosa:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Strychnos spinosa
Flora of Caprivi: Strychnos spinosa
Flora of Malawi: Strychnos spinosa
Flora of Mozambique: Strychnos spinosa
Flora of Zambia: Strychnos spinosa

External websites:

African Plant Database: Strychnos spinosa
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Strychnos spinosa
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Strychnos spinosa
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Strychnos spinosa
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Strychnos spinosa
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Strychnos spinosa
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Strychnos spinosa
Ispot Southern Africa : Strychnos spinosa
JSTOR Plant Science: Strychnos spinosa
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Strychnos spinosa
Tropicos: Strychnos spinosa
West African Plants database: Strychnos spinosa


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-16

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2016). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Strychnos spinosa.
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=144440, retrieved 29 August 2016

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