Xanthium strumarium L.

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Xanthium strumarium

Photo: Helen Pickering
Cross the Sinde river going west on main road 100m walk left (climb over a fence) lot growing along the edge of the river up to the railway bridge.

Xanthium strumarium

Photo: Helen Pickering
Cross the Sinde river going west on main road 100m walk left (climb over a fence) lot growing along the edge of the river up to the railway bridge.

Xanthium strumarium

Photo: Helen Pickering
Cross the Sinde river going west on main road 100m walk left (climb over a fence) lot growing along the edge of the river up to the railway bridge.

Xanthium strumarium

Photo: Helen Pickering
Cross the Sinde river going west on main road 100m walk left (climb over a fence) lot growing along the edge of the river up to the railway bridge.

Xanthium strumarium

Photo: Helen Pickering
Cross the Sinde river going west on main road 100m walk left (climb over a fence) lot growing along the edge of the river up to the railway bridge.

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Synonyms: Xanthium pungens Wallr.
Common names: Giant cocklebur (English)
Frequency:
Status: Probably introduced
Description:
Annual herb, to 1 m; branches without spines. Leaves petiolate, broadly deltate, concolorous; simple or 3-5-lobed; base usually cordate in outline but cuneate at the very base. Male capitula terminal on short axillary branchlets. Female capitulum with phyllaries connate around the 2 achenes. Fruit c. 2.3 cm bearing numerous spines with hooked tips.
Notes:
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat: In disturbed ground and by streams
Altitude range: (metres)
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution:
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W,C,S
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Literature:

Pickering, H. & Roe, E. (2009). Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area Helen Pickering, London Page 42. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 39.

Wild, H. (undated, c. 1955). Common Rhodesian Weeds ?Government of Rhodesia, Salisbury Page 78. as Xanthium pungens (Includes a picture).


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Other sources of information about Xanthium strumarium:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Xanthium strumarium
Flora of Mozambique: Xanthium strumarium
Flora of Zambia: Xanthium strumarium

External websites:

African Plant Database: Xanthium strumarium
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Xanthium strumarium
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Xanthium strumarium
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Xanthium strumarium
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Xanthium strumarium
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Xanthium strumarium
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Xanthium strumarium
Ispot Southern Africa : Xanthium strumarium
JSTOR Plant Science: Xanthium strumarium
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Xanthium strumarium
Tropicos: Xanthium strumarium
West African Plants database: Xanthium strumarium


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-16

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2016). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Xanthium strumarium.
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=160310, retrieved 2 July 2016

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