Xanthium spinosum L.

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Xanthium spinosum

Photo: Mark Hyde

Xanthium spinosum

Photo: Mark Hyde

Xanthium spinosum

Photo: Mark Hyde

Xanthium spinosum

Photo: Mark Hyde

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Common names: Spiny cocklebur (English)
Status: Probably introduced.
Annual herb, to 1 m; branches bearing 3-partite yellow spines. Leaves petiolate, narrowly ovate, discolorous; margin undulate, toothed or, commonly, 3-lobed; base cuneate. Male capitula spherical, terminal. Female capitulum with phyllaries connate around the 2 achenes. Fruit 1-1.2 cm bearing numerous spines with hooked tips.
Derivation of specific name: spinosum: spiny
Habitat: In disturbed places.
Altitude range: (metres)
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Widespread as a weed in both the Old and New Worlds.
Zimbabwe distribution: W,C
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Chapano, C., Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 37.

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 39.

Wild, H. (1967). The Compositae of the Flora Zambesiaca area. 1. Heliantheae. Kirkia 6(1) Pages 4 - 5.

Wild, H. (undated, c. 1955). Common Rhodesian Weeds ?Government of Rhodesia, Salisbury Page 79. (Includes a picture).


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Other sources of information about Xanthium spinosum:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Xanthium spinosum

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Xanthium spinosum
African Plant Database: Xanthium spinosum
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Xanthium spinosum
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Xanthium spinosum
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Xanthium spinosum
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Xanthium spinosum
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Xanthium spinosum
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Xanthium spinosum
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Xanthium spinosum
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Xanthium spinosum
Ispot Southern Africa: Xanthium spinosum
JSTOR Plant Science: Xanthium spinosum
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Xanthium spinosum
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Xanthium spinosum
The Plant List (version 1.1): Xanthium spinosum
Tropicos: Xanthium spinosum

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-18

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2018). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Xanthium spinosum.
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=160320, retrieved 21 January 2018

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