Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel
subsp. dalenii

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Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii

Photo: Bart Wursten
Vumba Rd, nr Nyamheni Rd turnoff

Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii

Photo: Bart Wursten
Leopard Rock Golf Course, Vumba

Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii

Photo: Neil Crouch
Bundi Plain, near Skeleton Pass, Chimanimani N.P.

Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii

Photo: Neil Crouch
Bundi Plain, near Skeleton Pass, Chimanimani N.P.

Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii

Photo: Petra Ballings
Mt Chinaka, Juliasdale

Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii

Photo: Bart Wursten
Zambezi National Park

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Gladiolus natalensis Reinw. ex Hook.f.
Gladiolus primulinus Baker
Gladiolus psittacinus Hook. f.
Gladiolus quartinianus A. Rich.
Common names: Hwenyanguruve (Shona) Indokwe (Ndebele) Parrot-beak gladiolus (English)
Frequency: Frequent
Status: Native
Robust herb, 50-120 cm high, growing from a corm 20-30 mm in diameter. Leaves 4-7, produced with the flowers, basal and along the flowering stem, linear to narrowly lanceolate, about half as long as the flowering spike, 10-30 mm wide, stiff and firmly textured; midrib and margins thickened. Inflorescence unbranched, 3-10-flowered; bracts 3.5-7 cm long, green. Flowers variable in colour from lemon yellow, orange or red, variously streaked or plain. Upper tepals broadly elliptic to ovate, together forming a helmet-like hood, curved down obscuring the stamens. A widespread and variable species. Some varieties were formerly described as separate species but these are now considered synonyms of G. dalenii.
Notes: It seems the flowering time is connected to the start of the rains. This might explain why in Vumba it was flowering much earlier than in the Juliasdale - Nyanga area. There, it flowers all over the place in February, while in Vumba they were all gone by mid December. Two form of this species with bright yellow and red flowers are written up separately.
Derivation of specific name: dalenii: named after Cornelius Dalen, Dutch botanist and director of the Rotterdam Botanic Garden.
Habitat: In various types of grassland, woodland and along road sides. Generally present except in semi-arid areas.
Altitude range: (metres) 980 - 1910 m
Flowering time:Dec - May
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar.
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W,C,E,S
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Tuesday 29 June 2010

Bandeira, S., Bolnick, D. & Barbosa, F. (2007). Wild Flowers of Southern Mozambique Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique Page 70. (Includes a picture).

Baumann, G. (2005). Photographic Guide to Wildflowers of Malawi Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi Pages 212 - 213. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 310. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 28.

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 18.

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 127.

Goldblatt, P. (1993). Iridaceae Flora Zambesiaca 12(4) Pages 89 - 93. (Includes a picture).

Goldblatt, P. (1996). Gladiolus in Tropical Africa Timber Press. Portland, Oregon. Pages 207 - 217. (Includes a picture).

Linley, K. & Baker, B. (1972). Flowers of the Veld Bundu Series Longman Zimbabwe Pages 27 - 28. As Gladiolus psittacinus (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 92.

Moriarty, A. (1975). Wild Flowers of Malawi Purnell & sons Cape Town. Page 16. As Gladiolus natalensis (Includes a picture).

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 116.

Pickering, H. & Roe, E. (2009). Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area Helen Pickering, London Page 66. (Includes a picture).

Plowes, D.C.H. & Drummond, R.B. (1990). Wild Flowers of Zimbabwe. Revised edition. Longman, Zimbabwe. No. 21, plates 39 & 40

Pooley, E. (1998). A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Region. Natal Flora Publications Trust. Durban. Pages 44 - 45. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 124.

Siebert, S. & Mössmer, M. (Editors) (2002). SABONET Southern Mozambique Expedition 2001; Provisional Plant Checklist of the Maputo Elephant Reserve (MER) and Licuati Forest Reserve (LFR) SABONET News 7(1) Page 26.

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 110.

Wursten, B., Timberlake, J. & Darbyshire, I. (2017). The Chimanimani Mountains: an updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1) Page 83.

Other sources of information about Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii
Flora of Caprivi: Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii
Flora of Malawi: Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii
Flora of Mozambique: Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii
Flora of Zambia: Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Gladiolus dalenii
African Plant Database: Gladiolus dalenii
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Gladiolus dalenii
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Gladiolus dalenii
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Gladiolus dalenii
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Gladiolus dalenii
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Gladiolus dalenii
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Gladiolus dalenii
iNaturalist: Gladiolus dalenii
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Gladiolus dalenii
JSTOR Plant Science: Gladiolus dalenii
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Gladiolus dalenii
Kew Monocotyledon checklist: Gladiolus dalenii
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Gladiolus dalenii
Plants of the World Online: Gladiolus dalenii
Tropicos: Gladiolus dalenii
Wikipedia: Gladiolus dalenii

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-22

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2022). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Gladiolus dalenii subsp. dalenii., retrieved 4 October 2022

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