Berkheya echinacea (Harv.) O. Hoffm. ex Burtt Davy
subsp. polyacantha (Baker) Roessler

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Berkheya echinacea subsp. polyacantha

Photo: Bart Wursten
Kaperekeza road, Nyika National Park

Berkheya echinacea subsp. polyacantha

Photo: Bart Wursten
Kaperekeza road, Nyika National Park

Berkheya echinacea subsp. polyacantha

Photo: Bart Wursten
Kaperekeza road, Nyika National Park

Berkheya echinacea subsp. polyacantha

Photo: Bart Wursten
Kaperekeza road, Nyika National Park

Berkheya echinacea subsp. polyacantha

Photo: Bart Wursten
Kaperekeza road, Nyika National Park

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Berkheya parvifolia Baker
Berkheya polyacantha Baker
Common names:
Frequency:
Status: Native
Description:
A slender perennial herb up to c. 140 cm tall, growing from a woody rootstock. Stems annual, 1 -several erect simple or more or less branched above. Leaves along the stem linear-oblong or lanceolate, mostly 3–12 cm long, decurrent on the stem in continuous wings; wings to 1.5 cm wide, sinuate-dentate to coarsely dentate on the margins, spinescent as in leaf upper surface. Leaves more or less crowded on the lower stem, sessile, oblanceolate, 12–22 cm long; margins of all leaves and stem wings sinuate-dentate to coarsely dentate or sub-entire, upper surfaces and margins beset with bristle-like spines 2–7 mm long. Capitula radiate, solitary and terminal, or several more or less clustered on stems and branches, 4–6 cm in diameter. Phyllaries mostly 12–20 mm long, the outer and innermost somewhat shorter, linear and spine-tipped; the outer phyllaries leaf-like and dentate-lobed with 2–4 bristle-like spines 3–5 mm long on each tooth, often also spinescent on the margin between the teeth; the inner phyllaries more or less unarmed. Rays yellow, mostly 15 mm long. Disk-floret corollas yellow, c. 7 mm long; achenes 1–2 mm long, more or less densely silvery strigose; pappus scales narrowly oblong-obovate, 1.5–2 mm long.
Notes:
Derivation of specific name: echinacea: spiny like a hedgehog, echinate;
polyacantha: with many spines.
Habitat: Submontane grassland, often in wet places.
Altitude range: (metres)
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe distribution: E
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Wednesday 5 September 2018
Literature:

Baumann, G. (2005). Photographic Guide to Wildflowers of Malawi Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi Pages 162 - 163. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 82.

Fabian, A. & Germishuizen, G. (1997). Wild Flowers of Northern South Africa. Fernwood Press, Vlaeburg. Page 456. Note this is a different subspecies, namely subsp. echinacea. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 23.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 28.

Pope, G.V. (1992). Compositae Flora Zambesiaca 6(1) Pages 240 - 241. As Berkheya polyacantha

Roessler, H. (1975). The Compositae of the Flora Zambesiaca Area, 5 Subtribe Gorteriinae. Kirkia 10(1) Pages 76 - 77.


Other sources of information about Berkheya echinacea subsp. polyacantha:

Our websites:

Flora of Malawi: Berkheya echinacea subsp. polyacantha
Flora of Zambia: Berkheya echinacea subsp. polyacantha

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Berkheya echinacea
African Plant Database: Berkheya echinacea
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Berkheya echinacea
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Berkheya echinacea
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Berkheya echinacea
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Berkheya echinacea
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Berkheya echinacea
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Berkheya echinacea
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Berkheya echinacea
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Berkheya echinacea
Ispot Southern Africa: Berkheya echinacea
JSTOR Plant Science: Berkheya echinacea
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Berkheya echinacea
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Berkheya echinacea
The Plant List (version 1.1): Berkheya echinacea
Tropicos: Berkheya echinacea


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-18

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2018). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Berkheya echinacea subsp. polyacantha.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=161790, retrieved 16 November 2018

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