Asplenium trichomanes L.
subsp. quadrivalens D.E. Mey.

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Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens

Photo: Petra Ballings

Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens

Photo: Petra Ballings

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Synonyms: Asplenium anceps Sol. ex Lowe
Asplenium germanicum J.Cardoso
Asplenium trichomanes L. var. genuinum Willk.
Chamaefilix trichomanes (L.) Farw.
Common names:
Status: Native
Rhizome erect; scales dark brown, lanceolate, up to 4 mm long, margins minutely serrulate. Fronds tufted, not proliferous. Stipe up to 9 cm, glabrous, dark-brown to almost black, shiny. Lamina 6-23 cm × 1-1.5 cm, pinnate, oblong-linear in outline. Pinnae obovate to oblong-circular, up to 32 pairs, margins entire to subentire, glabrous above, a few minute scales below. Rhachis dark-brown to blackish, glabrous. Sori 3 or 4 pairs per pinna at 30-45° to the costa, linear or elongate; indusium entire.
Notes: Differs from similar species ( A. monanthes and A. lunulatum) by not proliferous fronds, oblong-circular pinnae and 3-4 pairs of sori per pinna.
Derivation of specific name: trichomanes: a growth of hair, it was believed that this fern was a hair restorer.
quadrivalens: quad- = four; valens = strong, stout, powerful.
Habitat: Rock crevices, in boulder scree on high mountain tops; moist evergreen forest at lower elevations. Terrestrial or lithophyte.
Altitude range: (metres) 880 - 2590 m
Worldwide distribution: Kenya, Lesotho, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe. Also North Africa, Macaronesia, Britain, North America
Zimbabwe distribution: E
Growth form(s): Epiphyte.
Endemic status:
Red data list status: Data deficient
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Friday 18 November 2011

Burrows, J.E. (1990). Southern African Ferns and Fern Allies. Frandsen, Sandton. Pages 228 - 229. (Includes a picture).

Crouch, N.R., Klopper, R.R., Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (2011). Ferns of Southern Africa, A comprehensive guide Struik Nature Pages 614 - 615. (Includes a picture).

Jacobsen, W.B.G. (1983). The Ferns and Fern Allies of Southern Africa. Butterworths, Durban and Pretoria. Pages 341 - 342. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 5.

Roux, J.P. (2001). Conspectus of Southern African Pteridophyta. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 13 Page 172.

Roux, J.P. (2009). Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighbouring islands Page 99.

Schelpe, E.A.C.L.E. (1970). Pteridophyta Flora Zambesiaca Pages 174 - 175.


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Other sources of information about Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens:

External websites:

African Plant Database: Asplenium trichomanes
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Asplenium trichomanes
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Asplenium trichomanes
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Asplenium trichomanes
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Asplenium trichomanes
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Asplenium trichomanes
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Asplenium trichomanes
Ispot Southern Africa : Asplenium trichomanes
JSTOR Plant Science: Asplenium trichomanes
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Asplenium trichomanes
Tropicos: Asplenium trichomanes
West African Plants database: Asplenium trichomanes

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-16

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2016). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens., retrieved 27 October 2016

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