Ximenia caffra Sond.
var. caffra

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Ximenia caffra var. caffra

Photo: Bart Wursten
Lake Chivero, nr Bushman's Point

Ximenia caffra var. caffra

Photo: Bart Wursten
Gardiner, Arcturus

Ximenia caffra var. caffra

Photo: Bart Wursten
Valley of Kings, Mutare

Ximenia caffra var. caffra

Photo: Bart Wursten
Near Rhine Hotel, Old Runde Bridge, Mwenezi

Ximenia caffra var. caffra

Photo: Bart Wursten
Near Rhine Hotel, Old Runde Bridge, Mwenezi

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Common names: Munhengeni (Shona) Mutengeni (Shona) Mutsvanzva (Shona) Sourplum (English) Umthunduluka (Ndebele)
Frequency: Common
Status: Native
Shrub or small tree with spine-tipped branchlets. Leaves in fascicles on small lateral spurs, elliptic, leathery, densely hairy when young but becoming glabrous with age. Flowers clustered in the axils of the spines, creamy-white with a whitish "beard" in the throat. Fruit ellipsoid, orange to red when ripe. The fruit is edible but very sour.
Derivation of specific name: caffra: from Kaffraria, historic name for South Africa
Habitat: In various types of woodland and wooded grassland, often on rocky kopjes and termite mounds.
Altitude range: (metres)
Flowering time:Sep - Oct
Worldwide distribution: From Central Africa to KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W,C,E,S
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species: Spindasis natalensis (Food plant)
Stugeta bowkeri tearei (Food plant)
Deudorix antalus (Food plant)
Axiocerses amanga amanga (Food plant)
Mylothris agathina agathina (Larval foodplant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Thursday 12 November 2015

Coates Palgrave, K. et al. (1956). Trees of Central Africa National Publications Trust, Salisbury. Pages 305 - 308. as Ximenia caffra (Includes a picture).

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Pages 74 - 75. (Includes a picture).

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 235.

Drummond, R.B. (1981). Common Trees of the Central Watershed Woodlands of Zimbabwe. Natural Resources Board, Harare. Pages 30 - 31. (Includes a picture).

Pickering, H. & Roe, E. (2009). Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area Helen Pickering, London Page 86. as Ximenia caffra (Includes a picture).

Roodt, V. (1998). Trees and Shrubs of the Okavango Delta Shell Field Guide Series: Part I Shell Oil Botswana, Gaberone. Pages 66 - 67. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 90.

Steedman, E.C. (1933). Some Trees, Shrubs and Lianes of Southern Rhodesia. Page 7.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 220.


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Other sources of information about Ximenia caffra var. caffra:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Ximenia caffra var. caffra
Flora of Caprivi: Ximenia caffra var. caffra
Flora of Mozambique: Ximenia caffra var. caffra
Flora of Zambia: Ximenia caffra var. caffra

External websites:

African Plant Database: Ximenia caffra
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Ximenia caffra
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Ximenia caffra
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Ximenia caffra
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Ximenia caffra
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Ximenia caffra
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Ximenia caffra
Ispot Southern Africa : Ximenia caffra
JSTOR Plant Science: Ximenia caffra
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Ximenia caffra
Tropicos: Ximenia caffra
West African Plants database: Ximenia caffra

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-16

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2016). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Ximenia caffra var. caffra.
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=121590, retrieved 31 May 2016

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