Oryza sativa L.

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Common names:
Description: An annual or rarely short-lived perennial of variable habit. Culms 45-180 cm. tall, 3-many-noded (up to 20), 6-8 mm. in diam., erect or ascending from a geniculate base, terete, hollow, smooth, glabrous. Leaf-sheath coarsely striate, tight when young, later somewhat loose, often somewhat spongy, green or sometimes tinged with brown or purple, smooth, glabrous; the lowest usually longer, the upper shorter than the internodes. Ligule (1·25)1·5-3 cm. long, triangular, acute, entire or split, usually glabrous, sometimes tinged with pink, purple or brown in some varieties or strains. Leaf-laminae 12-65 x 0·4 — 1·75 cm., linear, tapering to an acute point, bright green to glaucous, rather flaccid, glabrous or puberulous, rarely scattered with short hairs, smooth on the lower, asperulous on the upper surface; midrib usually distinct. Panicle up to 50 cm. long, erect, curved or drooping, very variable in density; rhachis obtusely angular, smooth, glabrous or scattered hairy; branches solitary or clustered, forming a variable angle with the rhachis (from being nearly erect to spreading), angular, scabrous. Pedicels up to 4 mm. long, stout, scabrous. Spikelets 8-11 x 2·5-3·5 mm., not deciduous (the articulation to the pedicel is usually completely solidified but there are, however, some strains in which the spikelets fall off at maturity), obliquely attached to the pedicel, very variable in shape, asymmetrically oblong to elliptic-oblong in lateral view. Glumes (the narrow rim at the base of the spikelet) varying in colour from pale white to yellow, purple or black. Sterile lemmas about equal in shape and size, usually 2-3 mm. long (very rarely up to 1/2 the length of the spikelet in certain forms “winged varieties”), lanceolate, acute, glossy. Fertile lemma as described for O. barthii, sometimes coloured, usually awnless, sometimes awned (the awn often purple-pink, more rarely colourless). Paleas as described for O. barthii. Sexual organs and caryopsis similar to those of O. barthii.
Derivation of specific name: sativa: cultivated, not wild
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: tropics and subtropics throughout the world
Growth form(s):
Insects associated with this species: Cnaphalocrocis trapezalis (Larval foodplant)
Paraponyx fluctuosalis (Larval foodplant)
Mocis proverai (Larval food plant)
Eublemma anachoresis (Larval food plant)
Bicyclus condamini (Larval food plant)
Maruca vitrata (Larval food plant)
Ariathisa abyssinia (Larval food plant)
Grammodes bifasciata (Larval foodplant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Jackson, G. & Wiehe, P.O. (1958). An Annotated Check List of Nyasaland Grasses The Government Printer, Zomba, Nyasaland Page 68.

Launert, E. (1971). Poaceae Flora Zambesiaca 10(1) Pages 33 - 36. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 107.

Other sources of information about Oryza sativa:

Our websites:

Flora of Mozambique: cultivated Oryza sativa
Flora of Zimbabwe: Oryza sativa

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Oryza sativa
African Plant Database: Oryza sativa
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Oryza sativa
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Oryza sativa
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Oryza sativa
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Oryza sativa
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Oryza sativa
JSTOR Plant Science: Oryza sativa
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Oryza sativa
Plants of the World Online: Oryza sativa
Tropicos: Oryza sativa
Wikipedia: Oryza sativa

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Zimbabwe: Cultivated Plants: Species information: Oryza sativa.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/cult/species.php?species_id=103460, retrieved 21 June 2024

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