Carissa spinarum L.

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Carissa spinarum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Cecil Kop, Mutare

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Cecil Kop, Mutare

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Rd to Osborne Dam

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Mpinge Pass, Great Dyke

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Mpinge Pass, Great Dyke

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Neil Crouch
Frog 'n' Fern, Chimanimani

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Neil Crouch
Frog 'n' Fern, Chimanimani

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl
Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl var. tomentosa (A. Rich.) Stapf
Carissa pilosa Schinz
Carissa tomentosa A. Rich.
Common names: Mudyabveni (Shona) Mudzambara (Shona) Muhlababzunzi (Shona) Mumbingwa (Shona) Muruguru (Shona) Mutsamviringa (Shona) Simple-spined num-num (English) Umlugulu (Ndebele)
Description: Scrambling shrub or small tree with simple, opposite spines. Young leaves and twigs often pubescent. The fruits are edible.
Derivation of specific name: spinarum: spinescent, bearing spines
Flowering time:Sep - Dec
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in tropical Africa, Asia from Yemen to India and Thailand and the Indian Ocean islands
Growth form(s): Tree.
Insects associated with this species: Cirina forda (Food plant)
Nephele comma (Food plant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Image last updated: Thursday 20 December 2012

Bruyns, P.V. (2014). The Apocynaceae of Namibia Strelitzia 34 SANBI, Pretoria, South Africa Pages 11 - 12. as Carissa spinarum (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 794. As Carissa edulis (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 12. also as Carissa spinarum

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 7. Also as Carissa edulis

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 947.

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Pages 542 - 543. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 25.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 268.

Fabian, A. & Germishuizen, G. (1997). Wild Flowers of Northern South Africa. Fernwood Press, Vlaeburg. Pages 308 - 309. (Includes a picture).

Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. & Kupicha, F.K. et al. (1985). Apocynaceae Flora Zambesiaca 7(2) Pages 399 - 400.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 18.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 24.

Pickering, H. & Roe, E. (2009). Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area Helen Pickering, London Page 27. (Includes a picture).

Roodt, V. (1998). Trees and Shrubs of the Okavango Delta Shell Field Guide Series: Part I Shell Oil Botswana, Gaberone. Pages 94 - 96. (Includes a picture).

Schmidt, E., Lötter, M. & McCleland, W. (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park Jacana, Johannesburg, South Africa Pages 558 - 559. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 25.

Steedman, E.C. (1933). Some Trees, Shrubs and Lianes of Southern Rhodesia. Page 69. As Carissa edulis var. tomentosa (Includes a picture).

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 197.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (1997). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Struik, South Africa Pages 306 - 307. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Carissa spinarum:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Carissa spinarum
Flora of Caprivi: Carissa spinarum
Flora of Malawi: Carissa spinarum
Flora of Mozambique: Carissa spinarum
Flora of Zambia: Carissa spinarum
Flora of Zimbabwe: Carissa spinarum

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Carissa spinarum
African Plant Database: Carissa spinarum
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Carissa spinarum
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Carissa spinarum
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Carissa spinarum
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Carissa spinarum
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Carissa spinarum
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Carissa spinarum
iNaturalist: Carissa spinarum
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Carissa spinarum
JSTOR Plant Science: Carissa spinarum
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Carissa spinarum
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Carissa spinarum
Plants of the World Online: Carissa spinarum
Tropicos: Carissa spinarum
Wikipedia: Carissa spinarum

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-23

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2023). Flora of Zimbabwe: Cultivated Plants: Species information: Carissa spinarum., retrieved 28 March 2023

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