Pteris friesii Hieron.

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Synonyms: Pteris catoptera Retz. var. friesii (Hieron.) Verdc.
Pteris quadriaurita Retz. subsp. friesii (Hieron.) Schelpe
Common names:
Status: Native
Rhizome erect to prostrate, up to 15 mm in diameter; rhizome scales lanceolate, brown with dark central stripe, up to 3 mm long, ciliate. Fronds tufted, arching, slightly coriaceous. Stipe up to 60 cm long, strawcoloured to dark brown, glabrous. Lamina up to 1 × 0.8 m, ovate in outline, deeply 2-pinnatifid, basal pinnae basiscopically developed. Pinnae narrowly lanceolate, pinnatifid; ultimate lobes narrowly linear, apices rounded, margins entire; veins free, no veins anastomosing below the sinus; glabrous on both surfaces, single spine present along the costa at the junction of the costules on the uppersurface only. Rhachis glabrous, smooth. Sori linear, continuous, marginal; indusia entire, membranous.
Notes: Can be confused with Pteris Catoptera of which the lamina has a more membranous texture, it also has spines on the costules and costae on the upper surface of the lamina. Pteris dentata has ultimate lobes with serrate-dentate margins.
Derivation of specific name: friesii: named after Robert Elias Fries of Sweden, who participated in the Swedish Rhodesia-Congo Expedition in 1911-1912
Habitat: Undergrowth of evergreen forest, moist forest in more arid regions.
Altitude range: (metres) 800 - 1750 m
Worldwide distribution: Angola, Cameroon, DRC, Gabon, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Also on Mascarene and Comoro Islands, Seysecelles and Madagascar.
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W,C,E,S
Growth form(s): Terrestrial.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Burrows, J.E. (1990). Southern African Ferns and Fern Allies. Frandsen, Sandton. Pages 164 - 166. (Includes a picture).

Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (1993). An annotated check-list of the pteridophytes of Malawi Kirkia 14(1) Page 87.

Burrows, J.E. & Willis, C.K. (eds) (2005). Plants of the Nyika Plateau Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 31 SABONET, Pretoria Page 40.

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 46. As Pteris quadriaurita friesii

Chapano, C. & Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 30. As Pteris quadriaurita friesii

Crouch, N.R., Klopper, R.R., Burrows, J.E. & Burrows, S.M. (2011). Ferns of Southern Africa, A comprehensive guide Struik Nature Pages 326 - 327. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 15.

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. (1989). The flora and phytogeography of the evergreen forests of Malawi. I: Afromontane and mid-altitude forests; Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 59(1/2) Page 25.

Jacobsen, W.B.G. (1983). The Ferns and Fern Allies of Southern Africa. Butterworths, Durban and Pretoria. Pages 242 - 243. (Includes a picture).

Kornas, J. (1979). Distribution and ecology of the Pteridophytes in Zambia Polska Akademia Nauk Wydzial II Nauk Biologicznych Pages 69 - 70.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 9.

Roux, J.P. (2001). Conspectus of Southern African Pteridophyta. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 13 Page 79.

Roux, J.P. (2009). Synopsis of the Lycopodiophyta and Pteridophyta of Africa, Madagascar and neighbouring islands Page 172.

Schelpe, E.A.C.L.E. (1970). Pteridophyta Flora Zambesiaca Pages 118 - 120.

Other sources of information about Pteris friesii:

Our websites:

Flora of Malawi: Pteris friesii
Flora of Mozambique: Pteris friesii
Flora of Zambia: Pteris friesii

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Pteris friesii
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Pteris friesii
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Pteris friesii
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Pteris friesii
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Pteris friesii
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Pteris friesii
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Pteris friesii
iNaturalist: Pteris friesii
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Pteris friesii
JSTOR Plant Science: Pteris friesii
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Pteris friesii
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Pteris friesii
Plants of the World Online: Pteris friesii
Tropicos: Pteris friesii
Wikipedia: Pteris friesii

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-20

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2020). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Pteris friesii., retrieved 20 October 2020

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