Lolium temulentum L.

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Common names: Darnel (English)
A rather robust annual. Culms up to 90 cm. tall, 2-4-noded, solitary or tufted, somewhat stout, erect or geniculately ascending, glabrous, smooth or scabrous towards the spike. Leaf-sheaths prominently striate, rather tight, dorsally rounded, smooth or scaberulous, glabrous; Ligule c. 2 mm. long. Leaf-laminae 6-30(-40) x 0·3-1·3 cm., linear, tapering to a fine point, with 2 narrow auricles at the base, usually expanded, firm, scaberulous or smooth except for the margins. Spikes 10-30 cm. long, erect, rigid, pale-green; rhachis stout, somewhat waved, dorsally scaberulous or smooth. Spikelets 12-25 x 4-6 mm., 4-10-flowered, elliptic-oblong, oblong or obovate-oblong in outline, moderately compressed about their own length or slightly more apart. Superior glume 7-9-nerved, as long as or longer than the rest of the spikelet, narrowly oblong, obtuse, rigid, smooth or asperulous. Lemmas 6-8 mm. long, 5-9-nerved, muticous or awned, dorsally rounded, elliptic to ovate, somewhat rigid, smooth; awn (if present) up to 20 mm. long, straight, scabrous. Anthers c. 2·5 mm. long, linear. Caryopsis c. 7 mm. long, elliptic-oblong in outline, tightly enclosed by the lemma and palea.
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat: Growing as a weed in arable land and also in waste places.
Altitude range: (metres)
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Mediterranean region introduced into most temperate regions, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe distribution: W,C,E
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Chapano, C. & Mamuto, M. (2003). Plants of the Chimanimani District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 37.

Launert, E. (1971). Poaceae Flora Zambesiaca 10(1) Pages 42 - 44. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 106.

Other sources of information about Lolium temulentum:

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Lolium temulentum
African Plant Database: Lolium temulentum
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Lolium temulentum
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Lolium temulentum
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Lolium temulentum
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Lolium temulentum
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Lolium temulentum
JSTOR Plant Science: Lolium temulentum
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Lolium temulentum
Plants of the World Online: Lolium temulentum
Tropicos: Lolium temulentum
Wikipedia: Lolium temulentum

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Lolium temulentum., retrieved 23 April 2024

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