Carissa spinarum L.

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Carissa spinarum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Cecil Kop, Mutare

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Cecil Kop, Mutare

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Rd to Osborne Dam

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Mpinge Pass, Great Dyke

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Bart Wursten
Mpinge Pass, Great Dyke

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Neil Crouch
Frog 'n' Fern, Chimanimani

Carissa spinarum

Photo: Neil Crouch
Frog 'n' Fern, Chimanimani

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl
Carissa pilosa Schinz
Carissa tomentosa A. Rich.
Common names: Mudyabveni (Shona) Mudzambara (Shona) Muhlababzunzi (Shona) Mumbingwa (Shona) Muruguru (Shona) Mutsamviringa (Shona) Simple-spined num-num (English) Umlugulu (Ndebele)
Frequency: Common
Status: Native
Scrambling shrub or small tree with simple, opposite spines. Young leaves and twigs often pubescent. The fruits are edible.
Derivation of specific name: spinarum: spinescent, bearing spines
Habitat: A species of riverine scrub and dry woodland often associated with termite mounds.
Altitude range: (metres) 1060 - 1580 m
Flowering time:Sep - Dec
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in tropical Africa, Asia from Yemen to India and Thailand and the Indian Ocean islands
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W,C,E,S
Growth form(s): Tree.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species: Cirina forda (Food plant)
Nephele comma (Food plant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Thursday 20 December 2012

Bruyns, P.V. (2014). The Apocynaceae of Namibia Strelitzia 34 SANBI, Pretoria, South Africa Pages 11 - 12. as Carissa spinarum (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 947.

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Pages 542 - 543. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 25.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 268.

Fabian, A. & Germishuizen, G. (1997). Wild Flowers of Northern South Africa. Fernwood Press, Vlaeburg. Pages 308 - 309. (Includes a picture).

Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. & Kupicha, F.K. et al. (1985). Apocynaceae Flora Zambesiaca 7(2) Pages 399 - 400.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 18.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 24.

Pickering, H. & Roe, E. (2009). Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area Helen Pickering, London Page 27. (Includes a picture).

Roodt, V. (1998). Trees and Shrubs of the Okavango Delta Shell Field Guide Series: Part I Shell Oil Botswana, Gaberone. Pages 94 - 96. (Includes a picture).

Schmidt, E., Lötter, M. & McCleland, W. (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park Jacana, Johannesburg, South Africa Pages 558 - 559. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 25.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 197.

Van Wyk, B. & Van Wyk, P. (1997). Field Guide to Trees of Southern Africa. Struik, South Africa Pages 306 - 307. (Includes a picture).


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Other sources of information about Carissa spinarum:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Carissa spinarum
Flora of Caprivi: Carissa spinarum
Flora of Malawi: Carissa spinarum
Flora of Mozambique: Carissa spinarum
Flora of Zambia: Carissa spinarum
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Carissa spinarum

External websites:

African Plant Database: Carissa spinarum
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Carissa spinarum
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Carissa spinarum
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Carissa spinarum
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Carissa spinarum
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Carissa spinarum
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Carissa spinarum
Ispot Southern Africa : Carissa spinarum
JSTOR Plant Science: Carissa spinarum
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Carissa spinarum
Tropicos: Carissa spinarum
West African Plants database: Carissa spinarum

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-16

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2016). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Carissa spinarum., retrieved 24 October 2016

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