Justicia betonica L.

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Justicia betonica

Photo: Bart Wursten
On (sloping) wall of upper dam, Hillside Dams, Bulawayo

Justicia betonica

Photo: Bart Wursten
On (sloping) wall of upper dam, Hillside Dams, Bulawayo

Justicia betonica

Photo: Bart Wursten
Along Masvingo road c. 5 km North of Mvuma

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Adhatoda betonica (L.) Nees
Adhatoda cheiranthifolia Nees
Adhatoda lupulina Nees
Adhatoda variegata Nees var. pallidior Nees
Justicia betonicoides C.B. Clarke
Justicia cheiranthifolia (Nees) C.B. Clarke
Justicia pallidior (Nees) C.B. Clarke
Justicia pallidior (Nees) C.B. Clarke var. cooperi C.B. Clarke
Justicia uninervis S. Moore
Common names: Paper plume (English)
Frequency: Frequent
Status: Native
Shrubby perennial herb up to 1.5 m tall. Leaves opposite, more or less narrowly lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, 2-16 cm long, hairless or finely velvety, base somewhat decurrent along the petiole; margin entire to crenate; petiole 0-2 cm long. Inflorescences in terminal spikes 2-12 cm long.Bracts overlapping, white to pale green with more or less distinct darker green or purplish veins. Flowers 8.5-14 mm long, usually on one side of the spike, white with 2 pinkish ridges or spots in the corolla throat, finely velvety and with scattered stalked glands. Capsule 11-20 mm long more or less densely velvety.
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat: In a wide variety of grassland, scrub, woodland and evergreen forest habitats. Also in secondary vegetation and sometimes as a weed of cultivated areas.
Altitude range: (metres) Up to 2000 m
Flowering time:Dec - May
Worldwide distribution: Widespread in tropical africa, South Africa, tropical Asia and introduced in America.
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W,C,E,S
Growth form(s):
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Saturday 22 March 2008

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 19.

Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2010). Acanthaceae (Part 2) Flora of Tropical East Africa Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Pages 548 - 550. (Includes a picture).

Darbyshire, I., Vollesen, K. & Kelbessa, E. (2015). Acanthaceae (Part 2) Flora Zambesiaca 8(6) Pages 185 - 187. (Includes a picture).

Ellery, K. & W. (1997). Plants of the Okavango Delta, a Field Guide Tsaro Publishers, Durban, South Africa Page 165. (Includes a picture).

Fabian, A. & Germishuizen, G. (1997). Wild Flowers of Northern South Africa. Fernwood Press, Vlaeburg. Pages 396 - 397. (Includes a picture).

Heath, A. & Heath, R. (2009). Field Guide to the Plants of Northern Botswana including the Okavango Delta Kew Publishing Page 330. (Includes a picture).

Kirby, G. (2013). Wild Flowers of Southeast Botswana Struik Nature, Cape Town South Africa Page 42. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 14.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 19.

Pooley, E. (1998). A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Region. Natal Flora Publications Trust. Durban. Pages 200 - 201. (Includes a picture).

Roodt, V. (1998). Common Wild Flowers of the Okavango Delta Shell Field Guide Series: Part II Shell Oil Botswana, Gaberone. Pages 10 - 11. (Includes a picture).

Roodt, V. (2011). Wild flowers, Waterplants and Grasses of the Okavango Delta and Kalahari "Did You Know" nature series Struik Nature for Veronica Roodt Publications Page 25. (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 18.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 194.

Van Wyk, B. & Malan, S. (1988). Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of the Witwatersrand and Pretoria Region Struik, Cape Town Pages 34 - 35. (Includes a picture).


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Other sources of information about Justicia betonica:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Justicia betonica
Flora of Caprivi: Justicia betonica
Flora of Malawi: Justicia betonica
Flora of Mozambique: Justicia betonica
Flora of Zambia: Justicia betonica
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Justicia betonica

External websites:

African Plant Database: Justicia betonica
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Justicia betonica
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Justicia betonica
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Justicia betonica
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Justicia betonica
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Justicia betonica
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Justicia betonica
Ispot Southern Africa : Justicia betonica
JSTOR Plant Science: Justicia betonica
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Justicia betonica
Tropicos: Justicia betonica
West African Plants database: Justicia betonica

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-16

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2016). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Justicia betonica.
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=154420, retrieved 25 May 2016

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