Encephalartos manikensis (Gilliland) Gilliland

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Encephalartos manikensis

Photo: Darrel Plowes
Mandea Range, Pungwe Valley

Encephalartos manikensis

Photo: Darrel Plowes
Mandea Range, Pungwe Valley

Encephalartos manikensis

Photo: Darrel Plowes
Mandea Range, Pungwe Valley

Encephalartos manikensis

Photo: Darrel Plowes
Mandea Range, Pungwe Valley

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Encephalartos gratus Prain var. manikensis Gilliland
Common names: Gorongowe cycad (English) Manica cycad (English)
Frequency: Rare
Status: Native
Cycad with a stem up to 1.5 m. Leaves narrowly ovate-lanceolate to oblong in outline, 100-190 cm, with c. 60 pairs of pinnae, lower pairs reduced to prickles. Largest pinnae 12-15 × 2-2.5 cm, lanceolate-ovate, ending in a forward directed spine and 1 or 2 spines on the upper and lower margins. Male cones 1-4 together, 25-60 cm tall on a peduncle of 5-15 cm. Scales slightly spaced when mature, subrectangular. Female cone c. 30-45 × 20-25 cm, loosely woolly. Seeds more or less ovoid, 2.5-3.5 cm.
Notes: In 1995, 5,000 plants were estimated to exist in the wild. Several accounts of local extinctions are known. It is highly threatened by collectors but also by afforestation and agriculture.
Derivation of specific name: manikensis: named after the Manica districts of eastern Zimbabwe and western Mozambique where this species occurs
Altitude range: (metres)
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Zimbabwe and Mozambique
Zimbabwe distribution: N,E
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status: Endangered
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Monday 11 December 2006

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 33. (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 84. (Includes a picture).

Da Silva, M.C., Izidine, S. & Amude, A.B. (2004). A preliminary checklist of the vascular plants of Mozambique. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 30 Sabonet, Pretoria Page 17.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 231.

Dyer, R.A. & Verdoorn, I.C. (1969). Encephalartos manikensis and its near allies Kirkia 7(1) Pages 150 - 151. (Includes a picture).

Golding, J.S. (ed.) (2002). Zimbabwe Plant Red Data List. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. SABONET 14 Page 55.

Goode, D. (1989). Cycads of Africa Struik, Cape Town Pages 166 - 171. (Includes a picture).

Kimberley, M.J. (1979). Cycads in Zimbabwe Excelsa 9 Pages 12 - 13. (Includes a picture).

Lewis, J. (1960). Cycadaceae (including Zamiaceae) Flora Zambesiaca 1(1) Page 82.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 12.

Other sources of information about Encephalartos manikensis:

Our websites:

Flora of Mozambique: Encephalartos manikensis
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Encephalartos manikensis

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Encephalartos manikensis
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Encephalartos manikensis
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Encephalartos manikensis
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Encephalartos manikensis
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Encephalartos manikensis
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Encephalartos manikensis
JSTOR Plant Science: Encephalartos manikensis
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Encephalartos manikensis
Plants of the World Online: Encephalartos manikensis
Tropicos: Encephalartos manikensis
Wikipedia: Encephalartos manikensis

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Encephalartos manikensis.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=102950, retrieved 21 April 2024

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