Xylopia odoratissima Welw. ex Oliv.

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Xylopia odoratissima

Photo: Patricia Bingham

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Synonyms: Xylopia antunesii Engl. & Diels
Xylopicrum odoratissimum (Welw. ex Oliv.) Kuntze
Common names: Kalahari bitterwood (English) Kalahari red-fingers (English)
Status: Native
Shrub or small tree, erect or ± spreading. Bark pale to dark grey, sometimes reddish, roughly fissured; branches reddish-brown, dotted with lenticels. Leaves oblong - elliptic, 3.5-12 cm long, dull greyish-green and sparsely hairy above, sometimes somewhat glossy, paler green and more densely appressed hairy below; margin entire. Flowers solitary or 2-3 together on short stalks, greenish to yellowish, pale golden velvety, sweetly scented. Fruit of 1-8 obovoid-cylindric carpels up to 3 × 1 cm, somewhat constricted between the seeds, hairless, red when ripe.
Notes: Note: similar to X. parviflora from Southeastern Zimbabwe but the distribution of the 2 species does not overlap.
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat: Occurring in open Brachystegia or Baikiaea woodland, usually on sandy soils or rocky ground.
Altitude range: (metres) 900 - 1680 m
Flowering time:Oct - Dec
Worldwide distribution: Angola, Botswana, DRC (Katanga), SW Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status: Lower Risk - least concern
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Pages 208 - 209.

Curtis, B.A. & Mannheimer, C.A. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia National Botanic Research Institute, Windhoek Page 89.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 237.

Mannheimer, C. & Curtis B. (2009). Le Roux and Müller's Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of Namibia Macmillan Education, Windhoek, Namibia. Pages 50 - 51. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 17.

Robson, N.K.B. (1960). Annonaceae Flora Zambesiaca 1(1) Page 139.

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 24.

Timberlake, J.R. & Childes, S.L. (2004). Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: Technical Reviews Volume Two (Chapter 5-15) Appendix 5-1: Plant Checklist Occasional Publications in Biodiversity 15 Page 196.

Other sources of information about Xylopia odoratissima:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Xylopia odoratissima
Flora of Caprivi: Xylopia odoratissima
Flora of Zambia: Xylopia odoratissima

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Xylopia odoratissima
African Plant Database: Xylopia odoratissima
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Xylopia odoratissima
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Xylopia odoratissima
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Xylopia odoratissima
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Xylopia odoratissima
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Xylopia odoratissima
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Xylopia odoratissima
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Xylopia odoratissima
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Xylopia odoratissima
Ispot Southern Africa: Xylopia odoratissima
JSTOR Plant Science: Xylopia odoratissima
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Xylopia odoratissima
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Xylopia odoratissima
The Plant List (version 1.1): Xylopia odoratissima
Tropicos: Xylopia odoratissima

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-18

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2018). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Xylopia odoratissima.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=123870, retrieved 19 April 2018

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