Warburgia salutaris (G. Bertol.) Chiov.

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Warburgia salutaris

Photo: Bart Wursten
National Botanic Gardens, Harare

Warburgia salutaris

Photo: Mark Hyde
National Botanic Gardens, Harare

Warburgia salutaris

Photo: Bart Wursten
National Botanic Garden, Harare

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Chibaca salutaris G. Bertol.
Warburgia breyeri Pott
Common names: Muranga (Shona) Pepper-bark tree (English)
Frequency: Very rare
Status: Native
Slender, medium-sized evergreen tree with markedly asymmetrical leaves.
Notes: In Zimbabwe this tree has always been rare and restricted to the Tanganda Tea Estates and a few surrounding locations. Fewer than ten mature specimens were known to occur in the wild. The bark is highly prized for traditional medicine. This forms a major threat and the species is believed by some to be extinct in the wild. There are some specimens growing in the Harare Botanic Garden and even there they show damage on the bark from harvesting. See http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/peopleplants/regions/africa/warburgia.htm for information about the reintroduction of Warburgia to Zimbabwe.
Derivation of specific name: salutaris: healing, beneficial, referring to its medicinal qualities
Habitat: Evergreen forest
Altitude range: (metres) 300 - 1000 m
Flowering time:Apr - May
Worldwide distribution: Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa
Zimbabwe distribution: E
Growth form(s): Tree.
Endemic status:
Red data list status: Critically Endangered
Insects associated with this species: Cirina forda (Food plant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Friday 2 June 2006

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 622. (Includes a picture).

Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & White, F. (1990). New and noteworthy plants from the evergreen forests of Malawi Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 60(1/2) Page 76.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 261.

Golding, J.S. (ed.) (2002). Zimbabwe Plant Red Data List. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. SABONET 14 Page 163.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 31.

Siebert, S. & Mössmer, M. (Editors) (2002). SABONET Southern Mozambique Expedition 2001; Provisional Plant Checklist of the Maputo Elephant Reserve (MER) and Licuati Forest Reserve (LFR) SABONET News 7(1) Page 24.

Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A Checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mount Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34 National Botanic Garden of Belgium Page 64. as Warburgia ugandensis var. ugandensis

Verdcourt, B. (1990). Canellaceae Flora Zambesiaca 7(4) Pages 1 - 3. (Includes a picture).

White, F., Dowsett-Lemaire, F. & Chapman, J.D. (2001). Evergreen forest flora of Malawi Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Pages 179 - 180. (Includes a picture).

Other sources of information about Warburgia salutaris:

Our websites:

Flora of Malawi: Warburgia salutaris
Flora of Mozambique: Warburgia salutaris
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Warburgia salutaris

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Warburgia salutaris
African Plant Database: Warburgia salutaris
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Warburgia salutaris
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Warburgia salutaris
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Warburgia salutaris
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Warburgia salutaris
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Warburgia salutaris
JSTOR Plant Science: Warburgia salutaris
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Warburgia salutaris
Plants of the World Online: Warburgia salutaris
Tropicos: Warburgia salutaris
Wikipedia: Warburgia salutaris

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Warburgia salutaris.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=140560, retrieved 24 April 2024

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