Spermatophyta: Dicotyledonae: Metachlamydeae: Lamiales

Scrophulariaceae - Snapdragon family




Hilliard, O.M. (1994) The Manuleae. A tribe of the Scrophulariaceae Edinburgh University Press

Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1983) Loganiaceae (inc. Buddlejaceae) Flora Zambesiaca 7(1)

Philcox, D. (1990) Scrophulariaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(2)

Description of the family

Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or, rarely, trees. Stipules mostly 0. Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled, entire, toothed or variously lobed or dissected. Inflorescences various. Pedicels with 0 or 2 bracteoles. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, usually zygomorphic. Calyx (3-)5-lobed, usually ± united. Corolla gamopetalous, sometimes produced into 1 or 2 spurs or sacs; limb usually 4- or 5-lobed, the lobes subequal or 2-lipped. Stamens 4, didynamous or sometimes equal, rarely 5. Ovary superior, 2(-4)-locular; ovules 1-many per loculus Fruit usually a capsule, sometimes a schizocarp, rarely a berry or drupe. Seeds small, numerous.

Comment: According to the most recent taxonomic research by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG-III), the traditional concepts of Scrophulariaceae were no longer satisfactory. Many genera, formerly included in this family, have therefore now been placed in separate families. As this new concept has become widely accepted, we have adjusted accordingly, resulting in the following changes:
All hemiparasitic genera are now in Orobanchaceae;
All genera formerly placed in the subfamily Lindernieae are now in Linderniaceae, provisionally also including the African species of Stemodiopsis;
A substantial number of genera are now placed in Plantaginaceae;
The genus Mimulus is now part of Phrymaceae;
Halleria is now in Stilbaceae.

Worldwide: 62 genera and c. 1,700 species, cosmopolitan, but especially temperate areas and on tropical mountains.

Zimbabwe: 6 cultivated genera and 10 cultivated taxa.

Digitalis purpurea

Links to cultivated genera:     View: living plant images - herbarium specimen images - all images for this family

Buddleja L.Description, Image
Diascia Link & OttoDescription
Freylinia CollaDescription, Image
Gomphostigma Turcz.Description
Jamesbrittenia KuntzeDescription, Image
Myoporum G. Forst.Description

Other sources of information about Scrophulariaceae:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Caprivi: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Malawi: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Mozambique: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Zambia: Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Zambia: cultivated Scrophulariaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: Scrophulariaceae

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Scrophulariaceae
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Scrophulariaceae
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Scrophulariaceae
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Scrophulariaceae
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Scrophulariaceae
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Scrophulariaceae
JSTOR Plant Science: Scrophulariaceae
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Scrophulariaceae
Wikipedia: Scrophulariaceae
Plants of the World Online: Scrophulariaceae
Tropicos: Scrophulariaceae

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Zimbabwe: Cultivated plants: Family page: Scrophulariaceae.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/cult/family.php?family_id=207, retrieved 23 April 2024

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