Spermatophyta: Dicotyledonae: Archichlamydeae: Malpighiales

Euphorbiaceae - Euphorbia family

Carter, S. & Leach, L.C. (2001) Euphorbiaceae: subfamily Euphorbioideae: tribe Euphorbieae Flora Zambesiaca 9(5)

Govaerts, R. et al. (2000) World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Radcliffe-Smith, A. (1996) Euphorbiaceae Flora Zambesiaca 9(4)

Description of the family

Dioecious or monoecious herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent, spiny or unarmed, sometimes with milky latex. Hairs 0, simple, stellate or stinging. Stipules present or 0. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or in whorls, usually simple, less often lobed or compound. Glands sometimes present near the apex of the petiole and base of lamina. Inflorescences various, sometimes in cyathia. Flowers unisexual, usually actinomorphic and very small. Calyx usually of 3-6 lobes or free sepals. Corolla with 3-6 free or ± united petals or 0. Disk present or 0. Stamens 3-many. Ovary superior, 1-4(-20)-locular, most commonly 3-locular. Styles (1-)3(-20). Fruit usually splitting into three 2-valved cocci, less often indehiscent. Seeds 1-2 per loculus, with or without a caruncle.

Comment: According to the most recent taxonomic research by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG-III), the traditional concepts of Euphorbiaceae were no longer found satisfactory. Many genera, formerly included in this family, have therefore now been placed in separate families. As this new concept has become widely accepted, we have adjusted accordingly, resulting in the following changes:

The genera formerly making up the subfamily Phyllanthoideae are now placed in Phyllanthaceae, with the exception of
Drypetes, which has been placed in the small family Putranjivaceae;
The genus Clutia has been placed in the small family Peraceae.

Worldwide: 313 genera and 8,100 species, cosmopolitan.

Zimbabwe: 38 genera and 170 taxa.

Euphorbia heterophylla

Links to genera:     View: living plant images - herbarium specimen images - all images for this family

Acalypha L.Description, Image
Adenocline Turcz.Description
Alchornea Sw.Description, Image
Aleurites J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.Description, Image
Androstachys PrainDescription, Image
Argomuellera PaxDescription, Image
Caperonia A.St.-Hil.Description, Image
Cephalocroton Hochst.Description, Image
Chrozophora Neck. ex A. Juss.Description, Image
Croton L.Description, Image
Dalechampia Plum. ex L.Description, Image
Erythrococca Benth.Description, Image
Euphorbia L.Description, Image
Excoecaria L.Description, Image
Homalanthus A. Juss.Description, Image
Jatropha L.Description, Image
Leidesia Müll. Arg.Description
Macaranga ThouarsDescription, Image
Mallotus Lour.Description, Image
Manihot Mill.Description, Image
Maprounea Aubl.Description, Image
Micrococca Benth.Description, Image
Monadenium PaxDescription
Necepsia PrainDescription
Neoboutonia Müll. Arg.Description, Image
Neoholstia RauschertDescription
Plukenetia L.Description
Ricinus L.Description, Image
Schinziophyton Hutch. ex Radcl.-Sm.Description, Image
Sclerocroton Hochst.Description, Image
Shirakiopsis EsserDescription, Image
Spirostachys Sond.Description, Image
Suregada Roxb. ex RottlerDescription
Synadenium Boiss.Description, Image
Tannodia Baill.Description, Image
Tragia Plum. ex L.Description, Image
Tragiella Pax & K. Hoffm.Description, Image
Vernicia Lour.Description, Image

Other sources of information about Euphorbiaceae:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Botswana: cultivated Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Caprivi: Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Malawi: Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Malawi: cultivated Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Mozambique: Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Mozambique: cultivated Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Zambia: Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Zambia: cultivated Euphorbiaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Euphorbiaceae

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Euphorbiaceae
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Euphorbiaceae
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Euphorbiaceae
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Euphorbiaceae
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Euphorbiaceae
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Euphorbiaceae
JSTOR Plant Science: Euphorbiaceae
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Euphorbiaceae
Wikipedia: Euphorbiaceae
Plants of the World Online: Euphorbiaceae
Tropicos: Euphorbiaceae

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-23

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2023). Flora of Zimbabwe: Family page: Euphorbiaceae.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=87, retrieved 3 December 2023

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