Encephalartos chimanimaniensis R.A. Dyer & I. Verd.

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Synonyms:
Common names: Chimanimani cycad (English)
Frequency: Extinct
Status: Native
Description:
Cycad with stout stems up to 1.75 m tall and 45 cm wide, often branching from the base. Leaves oblong-elliptic in outline, c. 150 cm long, gradually narrowing towards the base. Leaflets glossy green, inserted 2-35 cm apart, lower pairs reduced to prickles. Largest leaflets in the middle, ovate-lanceolate, 15-20 cm long and 2.5-3 cm wide, slightly falcate, with 2-4 small teeth on both margins towards the base, apex sometimes hooked. Male cones c. 3 together, subcylindric, up to c. 70 cm tall and 8-11 cm wide, narrowing gradually on both ends, on a peduncle of c. 15 cm long. Scales up to 4.5 cm long and 3.5 cm wide. Female cone c. 45 cm long and 18-20 cm wide. Seeds red, not fleshy, 3.7-4 cm long.
Notes: Initially known as a rare and critically endangered species, only known from a single site in the catchment of a river. Recent field surveys have been unable to locate more individuals. The species appears to have been wiped out by collectors and is now considered extinct.
Derivation of specific name: chimanimaniensis: of the Chimanimani mountains
Habitat: Quartzite grassland
Altitude range: (metres)
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Confined to the Chimanimani Mountains of Zimbabwe and Mozambique
Zimbabwe distribution: E
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status: Near Endemic
Red data list status: Extinct
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Monday 11 December 2006
Literature:

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 35. (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 84.

Darbyshire, I., Timberlake, J., Osborne, J., Rokni, S., Matimele, H., Langa. C., Datizua, C., de Sousa, C., Alves, T., Massingue, A., Hadj-Hammou, J., Dhanda, S., Shah, T., Wursten, B. (2019). The endemic plants of Mozambique: diversity and conservation status Phytotaxa 136 Page 75.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 231.

Dyer, R.A. & Verdoorn, I.C. (1969). Encephalartos manikensis and its near allies Kirkia 7(1) Pages 154 - 155. (Includes a picture).

Golding, J.S. (ed.) (2002). Zimbabwe Plant Red Data List. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. SABONET 14 Page 52.

Goode, D. (1989). Cycads of Africa Struik, Cape Town Pages 172 - 175. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 12.

Timberlake, J., Darbyshire, I., Wursten, B., Hadj-Hammou, J., Ballings, P., Mapaura, A., Matimele, H., Banze, A., Chipanga, H., Muassinar, D., Massunde, J., Chelene, I., Osborne, J., Shah, T. (2016). Chimanimani Mountains: Botany and Conservation. Report produced under CEPF Grant 63512. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. Page 51.

Wursten, B., Timberlake, J. & Darbyshire, I. (2017). The Chimanimani Mountains: an updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1) Page 80.


Other sources of information about Encephalartos chimanimaniensis:

Our websites:

Flora of Mozambique: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
iNaturalist: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
JSTOR Plant Science: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Plants of the World Online: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Tropicos: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Wikipedia: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis


Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-20

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2020). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=102930, retrieved 30 October 2020

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