Encephalartos chimanimaniensis R.A. Dyer & I. Verd.

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Common names: Chimanimani cycad (English)
Frequency: Extinct
Status: Native
Cycad with stout stems up to 1.75 m tall and 45 cm wide, often branching from the base. Leaves oblong-elliptic in outline, c. 150 cm long, gradually narrowing towards the base. Leaflets glossy green, inserted 2-35 cm apart, lower pairs reduced to prickles. Largest leaflets in the middle, ovate-lanceolate, 15-20 cm long and 2.5-3 cm wide, slightly falcate, with 2-4 small teeth on both margins towards the base, apex sometimes hooked. Male cones c. 3 together, subcylindric, up to c. 70 cm tall and 8-11 cm wide, narrowing gradually on both ends, on a peduncle of c. 15 cm long. Scales up to 4.5 cm long and 3.5 cm wide. Female cone c. 45 cm long and 18-20 cm wide. Seeds red, not fleshy, 3.7-4 cm long.
Notes: Initially known as a rare and critically endangered species, only known from a single site in the catchment of a river. Recent field surveys have been unable to locate more individuals. The species appears to have been wiped out by collectors and is now considered extinct.
Derivation of specific name: chimanimaniensis: of the Chimanimani mountains
Habitat: Quartzite grassland
Altitude range: (metres)
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Confined to the Chimanimani Mountains of Zimbabwe and Mozambique
Zimbabwe distribution: E
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status: Near Endemic
Red data list status: Extinct
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Monday 11 December 2006

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 35. (Includes a picture).

Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 84.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 231.

Dyer, R.A. & Verdoorn, I.C. (1969). Encephalartos manikensis and its near allies Kirkia 7(1) Pages 154 - 155. (Includes a picture).

Golding, J.S. (ed.) (2002). Zimbabwe Plant Red Data List. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. SABONET 14 Page 52.

Goode, D. (1989). Cycads of Africa Struik, Cape Town Pages 172 - 175. (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 12.

Timberlake, J., Darbyshire, I., Wursten, B., Hadj-Hammou, J., Ballings, P., Mapaura, A., Matimele, H., Banze, A., Chipanga, H., Muassinar, D., Massunde, J., Chelene, I., Osborne, J., Shah, T. (2016). Chimanimani Mountains: Botany and Conservation. Report produced under CEPF Grant 63512. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. Page 51.

Wursten, B., Timberlake, J. & Darbyshire, I. (2017). The Chimanimani Mountains: an updated checklist. Kirkia 19(1) Page 80.

Other sources of information about Encephalartos chimanimaniensis:

Our websites:

Flora of Mozambique: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
iNaturalist: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
JSTOR Plant Science: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Plants of the World Online: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
The Plant List (version 1.1): Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Tropicos: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis
Wikipedia: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-20

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2020). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=102930, retrieved 14 August 2020

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