Vitex madiensis Oliv.
subsp. madiensis

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Synonyms: Vitex camporum Büttn.
Vitex hockii De Wild.
Vitex madiensis Oliv. var. gossweileri W. Piep.
Vitex simplicifolia Oliv.
Common names:
Status: Native
Shrub or small tree 3–8 m tall, or a suffrutex 0.3–1.5 m tall with annual stems from a massive underground woody rootstock. Bark fissured, dark red-brown; young stems shortly hairy with reddish-brown buds. Leaves aromatic when crushed, often 3-whorled, 1-3-foliolate (in this taxon), often drying yellow-green; leaflets 6–17 × 4–9 cm, median leaflet largest, broadly-obovate, thickly leathery, roughly hairy or hairless above, pubescent on the conspicuously raised veins beneath; margin usually entire or sometimes coarsely shallowly crenate in upper half, often wavy; petioles 7–16 cm long, grooved. Inflorescences axillary, slightly aromatic when crushed, 5–19(30) cm long, covered with stiff cream-coloured hairs. Calyx deep purplish-violet, obconical, 5-toothed, gland-dotted, hairy. Corolla 8–12 mm long, gland-dotted, hairy; tube greenish-cream or greenish-mauve, 4.5–6.5 mm long, curved; lobes dull pale mauve to lilac-violet or brilliant purple sometimes creamy with mauve or greenish marks. Stamen filaments with glandular hairs. Drupe ellipsoid, 2 cm long, rounded at the apex, the base not enclosed by the enlarged calyx, purplish-black at maturity.
Notes: This subspecies mainly differs from subsp. milanjiensis by the leaves being 1-3-foliolate with broadly obovate, thickly leathery leaflets.
Derivation of specific name:
Habitat: Miombo and mixed deciduous woodlands with Combretum and Diospyros and floodplain grassland on termite mounds.
Altitude range: (metres) 600 - 1450 m
Flowering time:
Worldwide distribution: Gambia, Senegal, Mali to northern Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, CAR, DRC, Angola, Sudan, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe distribution: E
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species:
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species

Coates Palgrave, K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Page 983.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 272.

Fernandes, R. (2005). Lamiaceae (subfamilies: Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7) Pages 83 - 84.

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 57.

Phiri, P.S.M. (2005). A Checklist of Zambian Vascular Plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 32 Page 71. as Vitex madiensis

Other sources of information about Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis:

Our websites:

Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis
Flora of Malawi: Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis
Flora of Zambia: Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Vitex madiensis
African Plant Database: Vitex madiensis
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Vitex madiensis
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Vitex madiensis
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Vitex madiensis
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Vitex madiensis
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Vitex madiensis
JSTOR Plant Science: Vitex madiensis
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Vitex madiensis
Plants of the World Online: Vitex madiensis
Tropicos: Vitex madiensis
Wikipedia: Vitex madiensis

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis., retrieved 26 May 2024

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