Spermatophyta: Dicotyledonae: Metachlamydeae: Lamiales

Lamiaceae - Mint and basil family


Codd, L.E. (1985) Lamiaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28(4)

Fernandes, R. (2005) Lamiaceae (subfamilies: Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7)

Paton, A.J. et al. (2009) Lamiaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa

Description of the family

Trees, shrubs or annual or perennial herbs, usually with square stems. Stipules 0. Leaves opposite or whorled, rarely alternate (e.g. Aeollanthus subacaulis), usually gland-dotted and aromatic. Inflorescence cymose, borne in the axils of opposite bracts, usually much condensed so that the two opposite cymes form a whorl-like inflorescence (referred to as a whorl in this account); rarely the flowers are solitary in the axil of each bract. The whorls are often close together so that they form spikes or heads. Flowers hypogynous, zygomorphic, usually 2-lipped, bisexual (unisexual in Tetradenia). Bracts present. Calyx usually 5-toothed, often 2-lipped. Corolla gamopetalous, basically 5-lobed but often 2-lipped with the 2 upper lobes and the 3 lower lobes united. Stamens rarely 2, usually 4. Ovary superior, 4-locular; style often 2-lobed, usually gynobasic. Fruit consisting of 4 dry, 1-seeded nutlets.

Comment: Can be recognised by the 4 nutlets, a character also possessed by the Boraginaceae, but these usually have actinomorphic flowers and alternate leaves. The family is often similar in appearance to the Acanthaceae but these have fruits which are capsules.

Worldwide: 251 genera and 6,700 species, cosmopolitan, but especially from the Mediterranean to C Asia; very rare in New Zealand.

Zimbabwe: 36 genera and 167 taxa.

Pycnostachys urticifolia

Links to genera:     View: living plant images - herbarium specimen images - all images for this family

Achyrospermum BlumeDescription, Image
Acrotome Benth. ex Endl.Description, Image
Aeollanthus Mart. ex Spreng.Description, Image
Basilicum MoenchDescription, Image
Cantinoa Harley & J.F.B.PastoreImage
Clerodendrum L.Description, Image
Clinopodium L.Description
Coleus Lour.Image
Endostemon N.E.Br.Description, Image
Equilabium Mwany., A.J. Paton & CulhamDescription, Image
Haumaniastrum P.A. Duvign. & PlanckeDescription, Image
Hoslundia VahlDescription, Image
Hyptis Jacq.Description
Isodon (Benth.) Spach.Description
Kalaharia Baill.Description, Image
Karomia DopDescription, Image
Leonotis (Pers.) R.Br.Description, Image
Leucas R. Br.Description, Image
Mentha L.Description, Image
Mesosphaerum P. BrowneDescription, Image
Micromeria Benth.Description, Image
Ocimum L.Description, Image
Orthosiphon Benth.Description, Image
Platostoma P. Beauv.Description, Image
Plectranthus L'Hér.Description, Image
Premna L.Description, Image
Pycnostachys Hook.Description, Image
Rotheca Raf.Description, Image
Salvia L.Description, Image
Scutellaria L.Description, Image
Stachys L.Description, Image
Syncolostemon E. Mey.Description, Image
Tetradenia Benth.Description, Image
Tinnea Kotschy & Peyr.Description, Image
Vitex L.Description, Image
Volkameria L.Description, Image

Other sources of information about Lamiaceae:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Lamiaceae
Flora of Caprivi: Lamiaceae
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Lamiaceae
Flora of Malawi: Lamiaceae
Flora of Malawi: cultivated Lamiaceae
Flora of Mozambique: Lamiaceae
Flora of Mozambique: cultivated Lamiaceae
Flora of Zambia: Lamiaceae
Flora of Zambia: cultivated Lamiaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Lamiaceae

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Lamiaceae
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Lamiaceae
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Lamiaceae
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Lamiaceae
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Lamiaceae
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Lamiaceae
JSTOR Plant Science: Lamiaceae
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Lamiaceae
Wikipedia: Lamiaceae
Plants of the World Online: Lamiaceae
Tropicos: Lamiaceae

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Zimbabwe: Family page: Lamiaceae.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=114, retrieved 20 May 2024

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