Ximenia americana L.
var. microphylla Welw. ex Oliv.

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Ximenia americana var. microphylla

Photo: Bart Wursten

Ximenia americana var. microphylla

Photo: Bart Wursten

Ximenia americana var. microphylla

Photo: Bart Wursten

Ximenia americana var. microphylla

Photo: Bart Wursten

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Species details: Click on each item to see an explanation of that item (Note: opens a new window)

Synonyms: Ximenia rogersii Burtt Davy
Common names: Blue sourplum (English) Iholotshane (Ndebele) Mutengeninyatwa (Shona) Mutsanzavabere (Shona) Umswanja (Ndebele)
Status: Native
Small or large shrub or small tree with spine-tipped branchlets. Leaves in the axils of straight spines or in fascicles on small lateral spurs, oblong, 2-3 cm long, bluish or grey-green, hairless, distinctly folded upwards along the midrib. Flowers clustered in the axils of the spines, small, greenish-white with a white "beard" in the throat. Fruit ellipsoid, c. 2.5 cm long, yellow to red when ripe. The fruit is edible but very sour.
Derivation of specific name: americana: of America, where it was first collected;
microphylla: with very small leaves (compared to var. americana)
Habitat: In dry acacia woodland, wooded grassland and scrub.
Altitude range: (metres)
Flowering time:Sep - Dec
Worldwide distribution: Pantropical
Zimbabwe distribution: N,W,C,E,S
Growth form(s): Tree, shrub over 2 m.
Endemic status:
Red data list status:
Insects associated with this species: Stugeta bowkeri tearei (Food plant)
Axiocerses amanga amanga (Food plant)
Hypolycaena philippus philippus (Larval foodplant)
Spot characters: Display spot characters for this species
Images last updated: Thursday 12 April 2007

Burrows, J.E., Burrows, S.M., Lötter, M.C. & Schmidt, E. (2018). Trees and Shrubs Mozambique Publishing Print Matters (Pty), Cape Town. Page 110. (Includes a picture).

Chapano, C., Mugarisanwa, N.H. (2003). Plants of the Matobo District National Herbarium and Botanic Garden, Zimbabwe Page 37. As Ximenia americana americana

Coates Palgrave K. (revised and updated by Meg Coates Palgrave) (2002). Trees of Southern Africa 3rd edition. Struik, South Africa Pages 196 - 197.

Drummond, R.B. (1975). A list of trees, shrubs and woody climbers indigenous or naturalised in Rhodesia. Kirkia 10(1) Page 235. As Ximenia americana

Garcia, J.G. (1963). Olacaceae Flora Zambesiaca 2(1) Pages 329 - 330. As Ximenia americana (Includes a picture).

Mannheimer, C. & Curtis B. (2009). Le Roux and Müller's Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of Namibia Macmillan Education, Windhoek, Namibia. Pages 36 - 37. as Ximenia americana (Includes a picture).

Mapaura, A. & Timberlake, J. (eds) (2004). A checklist of Zimbabwean vascular plants Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report No. 33 Sabonet, Pretoria and Harare Page 65.

Pickering, H. & Roe, E. (2009). Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area Helen Pickering, London Page 86. as Ximenia americana (Includes a picture).

Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Preliminary checklist of the plants of Botswana. Sabonet Report no. 37. Sabonet, Pretoria and Gaborone Page 90.

Steedman, E.C. (1933). Some Trees, Shrubs and Lianes of Southern Rhodesia. Page 7.

Other sources of information about Ximenia americana var. microphylla:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Ximenia americana var. microphylla
Flora of Caprivi: Ximenia americana var. microphylla
Flora of Mozambique: Ximenia americana var. microphylla
Flora of Zambia: Ximenia americana var. microphylla

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Ximenia americana
African Plant Database: Ximenia americana
Biodiversity Explorer (Biodiversity of southern Africa): Ximenia americana
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Ximenia americana
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Ximenia americana
ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Ximenia americana
Flora Zambesiaca web site: Ximenia americana
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Ximenia americana
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network): Ximenia americana
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Ximenia americana
Ispot Southern Africa: Ximenia americana
JSTOR Plant Science: Ximenia americana
Kew Herbarium catalogue: Ximenia americana
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Ximenia americana
The Plant List (version 1.1): Ximenia americana
Tropicos: Ximenia americana

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-19

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2019). Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Ximenia americana var. microphylla.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/species.php?species_id=121580, retrieved 23 May 2019

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