List of glossary terms
This file is a glossary of the terms used on the Flora of Zimbabwe web site.
Please note that a number of other terms and explanations of their meaning are to be found on the abbreviations page.
Click on a letter below to take you to the first glossary item whose
name begins with that letter.
- cleft into a number of parts, but not as deeply as -sect.
- (of leaf) with leaflet(s).
- coupled or yoked together; applied to the leaflets of a pinnate leaf. E.g. 2-jugate: with 2 pairs of leaflets (i.e. 4 leaflets in all), sometimes also with a terminal leaflet in addition.
- possessing lobes.
- possessing loculi.
- a suffix indicating the number of parts possessed by an organ.
- e.g. 2-nate (binate) in pairs; 5-nate, in fives etc.
- possessing ovules, e.g. 3-ovulate, with 3 ovules.
- deeply cleft into a number of divisions, e.g. 2-partite, with 2 divisions etc.
- cleft into a number of parts, almost to the base or midrib.
- arranged in whorls, rows or series, e.g. 3-seriate, arranged in 3 series.
- when two or three lobes of a calyx or corolla stand separate from the others to form upper and lower lips.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- a leaf in which the primary divisions are themselves pinnate; similarly 3-pinnate etc.
- facing away from the axis (usually the lower side of a leaf surface).
- the failure of a part to develop fully.
- of or pertaining to abortion.
- without a stem or stemless, although a stem-like peduncle is usually present.
- accessory branches
- branches (of an inflorescence) additional to the normal one in the bract axil.
- increasing in size with age (usually applied to a calyx which grows larger after anthesis).
- a small dry 1-seeded indehiscent fruit.
- very narrow, stiff and pointed, usually round in cross-section.
- on the side (usually of a pinna) towards the apex.
(Click on link to see image(s)) (cf. zygomorphic)
- (of flowers) radially symmetric along more than 1 plane of symmetry.
- armed with prickles (as opposed to spines).
- plural of aculeus.
- a conical elevation of a part of a plant, becoming hard and sharp-pointed.
- a narrow point; sharp apex.
- gradually tapering to a sharp point with concave sides near the tip.
- with a tip that comes to a sharp point with ± straight-sided edges.
- facing towards the axis (usually the upper side of a leaf surface).
- when two or more dissimilar organs touch but are not fused.
- with unlike organs united.
- (of structures or organs) developing in an unusual position, e.g. of roots originating from a stem node.
- the manner in which the sepals and petals are arranged in bud.
- arising singly at a node; this term includes spiral, as well as distichous arrangements.
- honeycombed; pitted with small cavities separated by narrow ridges.
- plural of alveolus.
- a small cavity.
- having a widened base which clasps the stem.
- (of veins) joining up to form loops;
- (of bark) with ridges running together and then apart
- the male part of the flower.
- an elongated part of the
receptacle which bears both the male and female parts of the
flower (see image of Passiflora subpeltata).
- having both bisexual and male flowers on the same plant but no purely female flowers.
- an elongated part of the receptacle which bears the male parts of the flower only.
- completing its life cycle from seed to seed in less than 12 months.
- arranged in a circle or in a ring; the shape of a ring.
- in a position most remote from the axis.
- (in Cyperaceae) a cymose type of inflorescence with an umbel-like appearance due to tightly congested internodes, typically terminating a naked culm;
Juncaceae) a panicle with the lateral axes exceeding the main
- the part of the stamen which contains the pollen, usually divided into two pouches (thecae), joined together by a connective. Where there is only 1 theca, the anther is said to be 1-thecous.
- flowering time.
- on the anterior side or away from the axis.
- pointing forwards or upwards, or upwardly-directed.
- the tip or end point of a structure.
- a pair of finely divided and much reduced pinnae at the base of the stipe.
- concerning or near the apex.
- apical placentation
- when the ovules are attached to the top of the ovary.
- a short sharp point.
- reproducing from seed which has been formed without sexual fusion of gametes.
- a part added or attached to another, usually larger, structure.
- pressed close against another organ. e.g. hairs, which lie flat against a leaf surface.
- living in water.
- covered with long, delicate, cobweb-like hairs.
- curved, like a bow.
- a surface area well-defined by bounding veinlets, lines or cracks; used to describe the raised area on the surface of the seeds in the Fabaceae subfamily Mimosoideae; also the area where spines and glochids arise on the stems of Cactaceae.
- an appendage, often fleshy or brightly coloured, covering or partly enclosing the seed.
- a false aril.
- a long very narrow bristle-like point.
- bearing an arista.
- possessing spines, thorns or prickles.
- an individual part or segment of an articulated object.
- jointed or separating at a certain point, and leaving a clean scar.
- the point at which an organ is articulated.
- curving upwards, oblique at first then erect.
- tapering gradually to a slender point.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- a small ear-like projection at base (occurring mainly in the Poaceae).
- a fine bristle, usually terminating an organ.
- possessing an awn.
- the angle between the axis and any organ which arises from it, e.g. the angle between a leaf and a branch.
- axile placentation
- when the ovules are attached to the central axis or the inner angle of the loculi within the ovary.
- arising from the axil.
- (in general) the main or central line of development of any plant or organ.
- bearded, having tufts of hairs.
- with rigid points or lateral bristles pointing backwards.
- shortly or minutely barbed.
- basal placentation
- when the ovules are attached at the bottom of the loculus near the base of the ovary.
- of an anther, attached by its base to the filament.
- on the side (usually of a pinna) towards the base.
- cylindric with contractions and swellings at intervals (which may not be even); like a string of beads.
- a long prominent and substantial point, usually applied to the prolongation of ovaries and fruits.
- possessing a beak.
- a fleshy fruit, usually several-seeded, the seeds immersed in pulp and not surrounded by a stony layer. Example: tomato.
- a prefix meaning two or twice.
- convex on both sides.
- completing its life cycle in 2 years (but not within one year), not flowering in the first.
- serrate, with the teeth themselves serrate.
- having both functional male and functional female parts.
- short, axillary, densely crowded branchlet.
- a small often modified leaf found at the base of the pedicel or peduncle.
- bracteal cup
- (in Viscaceae) a cup-shaped structure formed by fused bracts.
- possessing bracts.
- possessing bracteoles.
- a secondary bract; a small bract on the pedicel or close to the flower, between the bract and the flower.
- the smallest part of a branch; the growth of the current or last growing season.
- a short underground stem with a crown of usually fleshy overlapping scale-like lvs. Example: an onion.
- a small bulb or tuber arising in the axil of a leaf or in an inflorescence, on the aerial part of the plant.
- (of lvs) surface prominently raised between the veins.
- falling unusually early.
- growing in tufts.
- plural of callus.
- possessing calli.
(adj. callose) (pl. calli)
- a thickened, raised mass of hardened
- (in Poaceae) a hard projection at the base of the floret or spikelet the sharp point of the seed;
- (in Orchidaceae) the raised structures, often consisting of ridges,
papillae or projections, occurring on the upper surface of the
- plural of calyx.
- possessing a calyculus.
- outer bracts around the calyx, or an involucre resembling an outer calyx.
- a cap-like or lid-like covering of certain fruits or flowers that comes off in one piece. E.g. the perianth forms a calyptra which comes off when a Eucalyptus flower opens.
- the outer envelope of the flower, consisting of sepals which may be free or united.
- calyx lobes
- the free part of the calyx.
- calyx tube
- the tube formed by the united sepals.
- bell-shaped, with a broad tube and a wide opening.
- channelled or grooved.
- covered with a grey pubescence or greyish colour.
- hair-like, or very fine and slender.
- like the head of a pin (as in
the stigma of some flowers or in some gland-bearing hairs);
- collected into compact head-like clusters (as the florets of the
- plural of capitulum.
- a dense head-like inflorescence usually of sessile flowers.
- of or pertaining to the capsule.
- a dry fruit produced by an ovary consisting of 2 or more united carpels and opening by slits or pores or breaking into pieces when ripe.
- the basic unit of the female part of the flower, consisting of an ovary or part of an ovary with an associated style and stigma.
- a prolongation of the floral axis between the carpels which bears the fruit, as in the narrow stalk that supports the two mericarps in the fruit of the Apiaceae.
- hard and tough, as the skin of an apple pip.
- a fleshy, sometimes coloured, outgrowth near the hilum of a seed.
- possessing a caruncle.
- a modified achene in which the
seed and the ovary wall have become united; characteristic of the
- having the colour of a chestnut, i.e. dark brown
- a much-reduced or scale-like
- (in e.g. Juncaceae or Poaceae) a leaf composed mostly of
a leaf sheath or base with the lamina reduced to ± zero or a
- a spike-like inflorescence with many bracteate and loosely crowded unisexual flowers that is often pendulous and may resemble a cat's tail.
- abruptly ending in a long tail-like tip or appendage.
- a thickened, often woody, vertical or branched, perennial stem, usually subterranean or at ground level.
- (in Asclepiadaceae and Orchidaceae)
the stalk of a pollinium.
- possessing a stem or stems.
- borne on or arising from the stem.
- alternative spelling of caespitose.
- of a papery texture; thin and opaque.
- (of flowers) opening normally.
- plural of cilium.
- fringed with hairs.
- minutely ciliate.
- a hair on the margin of a structure.
- plural of cincinnus.
- a tight, unilateral, scorpioid cyme.
- Inwardly coiled upon itself.
- the method or process of opening of a seed-pod or anther; in this case when the object splits transversely, the upper part coming off as a lid.
- a green leaf-like structure formed by a modified stem.
- (applied to scales of e.g. a rhizome) with a latticed appearance owing to the cells having thickened lateral walls and transparent surface walls.
- club-shaped, i.e. thickened towards the end.
- the very narrow base of some petals.
- producing small flowers, often simplified and inconspicuous, which do not open and are self-fertilising.
- a plant which uses other plants or objects as a means of support but has its roots in the ground.
- plural of coccus.
- of or pertaining to the coccus.
- a separate part of a lobed fruit,
usually 1-seeded, as in some Rhamnaceae and Euphorbiaceae.
- when two or more similar organs touch but are not fused.
- a persistent, central axis around which the carpels of some fruits are arranged.
- (in Poaceae) the lower twisted portion of the awn;
- (in the Asclepiadaceae and Orchidaceae) the solid central structure formed by the union of style, stigma and stamens;
- (in Malvaceae) the tube of connate filaments.
- shaped like a column.
- a tuft of hairs, especially on the tip of a seed; a tuft or crown of leaves.
- of a joint or seam, such as that between two adhering sepals.
- each of the faces of two cohering carpels or mericarps (i.e. the plane along which the fruit separates; hence commisural face) in the
- with a coma.
- composed of several similar parts.
- with all parts of uniform colour, especially of the two surfaces of a leaf.
- folded together lengthwise.
- a woody, ± conical structure of seed or pollen, borne beneath bract-like scales, arranged along an axis.
- merging together, uniting.
- with like organs united.
- see anther.
- of two or more organs with their bases separated but their apices touching one another.
- of sepals and petals in the bud when each overlaps an adjoining one on one side and is overlapped by the other adjoining one on the other side.
- (as applied to the inflorescence of the
Poaceae) not spreading, in which the branches of the inflorescence are
erect and close to the main axis.
- rolled together, coiled;
- of sepals or petals in bud where one edge overlaps the next sepal
or petal and the other edge is overlapped by the preceding sepal
- (of surface) heart-shaped; broadly ovate with a rounded notch at the base.
- with a thick and firm texture, similar to leather.
- a short thick underground stem, which
grows vertically, for example in many Iridaceae.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- the inner whorl of sterile appendages in the flower, made up of the free or united petals which are usually membranous and coloured (not green).
- corolla lobes
(Click on link to see image(s))
- the free part of the corolla.
- corolla tube
(Click on link to see image(s))
- the united part of the corolla.
- a whorl of appendages between the
petals and the stamens, sometimes united to form a ring or
cylinder, usually borne upon the petals or corolla tube (see image of Passiflora subpeltata).
- plural of corpusculum.
- connection between the arms of the
pollinia in Asclepiadaceae.
- a raceme in which the pedicels become shorter towards the top so that all the flowers are approximately at the same level (i.e. a flat-topped inflorescence).
- having the form of a corymb.
- corymbose cyme
- a flat-topped cyme, thus resembling a corymb in appearance.
- the midrib of a pinna.
- plural of costa.
- a basically palmate leaf in which the petiole extends into the lamina as a well-defined axis, dividing the lamina in two.
- the midrib of a pinnule or pinna segment.
- the seed leaf, usually the first leaf or leaves which are produced and which usually differ from the following leaves.
- (of margin) with crenations.
- a blunt or rounded tooth, often wider than long.
- minutely crenate.
- (of hairs) closely and stiffly curled.
- hard, thin and brittle.
- a hollow or pithy, often jointed stem,
typically unbranched and with nodes, found e.g. in Cyperaceae,
Poaceae and Juncaceae.
- a cultivated variety.
- wedge-shaped, the narrow end below.
- a cup-shaped organ.
- an elongated, sharp, rigid point.
- with the tip abruptly narrowed to a sharp, rigid point.
- plural of cyathium.
- pertaining to the cyathium.
- a small cup-like structure, characteristic of the genera Euphorbia, Monadenium and Synadenium, bearing on its rim variously-shaped glands (these sometimes separate and circular or crescent-shaped or fused into an entire marginal rim) with alternating lobes; within this cup are several naked male flowers, consisting of a stalked stamen and bracteole, and 1 central female flower bearing a 3-locular ovary with 3, often 2-fid, styles.
- an inflorescence in which the central axis is terminated by a flower which opens first, and subsequent growth takes place from lateral branches which may themselves be terminated in a flower, so that further growth takes place from further lateral branches and so on. The oldest flowers are therefore at the apex.
- of or pertaining to a cyme.
- a mineral concretion, usually crystals of calcium carbonate, within the epidermal cell of the leaves of some plants, (for example Urticaceae), almost always visible as light coloured spots in the leaves.
- of lvs: falling off at the end of the growing season every year;
- of other organs: falling before the majority of adjacent or associated organs.
- (of stamens) curving downwards.
- (of stems) lying on the ground and tending to rise at the end.
- having the base prolonged down the axis. Usually applied to leaves where the lamina is continued downwards as a wing on the petiole or stem.
- opposite leaves in 4 rows up and down the stem, in pairs alternating at right-angles.
- the method or process of opening of a seed-pod or anther; loculicidal, when the split opens into a cavity or loculus, septicidal when the split occurs at a septum or partition and circumscissile when the object splits transversely, the upper part coming off as a lid.
- (applied to an anther or seed-pod) splitting open, when ripe or mature, to shed its pollen or seed.
- melting away or breaking up into many small parts as in petals which soften and liquefy (Commelinaceae).
- (of hairs) much branched like the crown of a tree.
- with a toothed margin, the teeth pointing outwards not forwards.
- minutely dentate.
- flattened from above.
- having a definite end point; e.g. as in an inflorescence in which the main axis ends in a flower and cannot extend further.
- forming two bundles or groups, as in the stamens of some legumes which have 9 united stamens and 1 free.
- plural of dichasium.
- of or pertaining to a dichasium.
(cf. monochasium )
- a type of cyme in which the main axis and branches end in flowers that are subtended by two opposite branches.
- (of branching) forking regularly into two.
- a plant having two cotyledons.
- in two pairs of unequal length; usually used in referring to 4 stamens, 2 short, 2 long.
- of branching that is open or loosely spreading.
- (of leaflets) a compound leaf in which the leaflets arise from the same central point. For this work, we have chosen digitate to mean leaves which are truly compound (i.e. composed of separate leaflets) and palmate leaves to be simple leaves where the radiating fingers are joined together near the base.
- widened, flattened, expanded or enlarged.
- (of pinnae or pinnules) in which the midrib forms the basiscopic margin for a significant distance.
- having two forms.
- a plant with unisexual flowers, the male and female flowers borne on different plants.
- breaking apart at the joints.
- (of capitula of Asteraceae) with central florets bisexual with tubular corollas and marginal florets female or neutral but without ligules, their corollas tubular or 0.
- like a disc in shape;
- applied to a capitulum of the Asteraceae that lacks ray florets or ligulate florets and has only disk florets.
- of two colours, especially of a leaf where the two surfaces are of a different colour.
- an enlargement of the receptacle
usually surrounding or surmounting the ovary, usually in the form
of a ring or cushion or composed of separate gland-like parts;
- (of Asteraceae) the usually discoid receptacle of the
- disk floret
- (of Asteraceae) a tubular, 4- or 5-toothed or lobed floret on the disk of the capitulum.
- the part or end farthest away from the base or point of attachment.
- 2-ranked, with (e.g.) leaves on opposite sides of a stem and in the same plane.
- spreading apart widely.
- spreading apart but not as widely as divaricate.
- Plural of domatium.
- a small tuft of hair; a cavity or pocket formed by a plant which is usually inhabited by insects, particularly ants or mites. Domatia are usually found in the axils of the lateral veins where they meet the main vein on the underside of the leaf and there is often a corresponding raised dome on the upper surface of the leaf.
- of an anther, attached by its back to the filament.
- with a distinct upper and lower side, two-sided, not terete.
- dorsiventrally flattened
- flattened in the plane of the back and front and not of the sides.
- resembling a drupe.
- a ± fleshy fruit with one or more seeds each surrounded by a stony layer (e.g. a plum).
- a small drupe.
- without bracts.
- without a caruncle.
- covered with short spines or prickles.
- without glands.
- a solid object, elliptic in longitudinal section.
- having the shape of an ellipsoid.
- having the shape of an ellipse, broadest at the middle and narrower at the two equal ends.
- lengthened, extended.
- with a notch at the apex.
- the initial stage in the development of the plant while still enclosed within the seed.
- growing in water, but with some parts of the plant raised above the surface.
- confined to a region or country and not native anywhere else.
(cf. exocarp) (cf. mesocarp)
- the innermost layer of the ovary wall in a fruit, which may be hard or leathery as in a drupe or pyrene or fleshy as in Cucurbitaceae.
- the nutritive material (mealy, oily, fleshy or horny) stored within the seed, and often surrounding the embryo.
- with an even and continuous margin without lobes, teeth or other indentations.
- a prefix meaning on, upon or attached to.
- an involucre of bracts below the flower resembling an extra calyx.
- the primary outermost layer of cells of all plant organs.
(cf. hypogynous) (cf. perigynous)
- (of flower) with perianth and stamens appearing to be borne upon the ovary; with inferior ovary.
- borne upon the petals.
- a plant which grows on another plant but without deriving any nourishment from it. Most often applied to orchids which grow on trees as opposed to being terrestrial.
- of or pertaining to an epiphyte.
- folded lengthwise so that the base of each leaf enfolds the next.
- growing vertically.
- between erect and patent.
- resembling plants of the family Ericaceae, namely with small and sharply pointed leaves.
- (of margin) irregularly toothed, as if gnawed.
- retaining green leaves throughout the dormant season.
- to one side; off centre.
- going out beyond the margin of an organ (as in the vein of a leaf going beyond the margin).
(cf. endocarp) (cf. mesocarp)
- the outer layer of the pericarp.
- projecting beyond, protruding.
- beyond or outside the axil.
- extra-floral nectary
- outside the stamen whorl.
- curved like a scythe or sickle.
- a unit of classification above the level of genus and tribe but below that of order.
- covered with a meal-like powder.
- a tight bundle or cluster.
- arranged in fascicles.
- strictly erect and parallel to other organs, e.g. with reference to stems or branches.
- rust-coloured or reddish-brown.
- producing viable seeds or pollen.
- composed of, or like, fibres.
- the stalk of the anther.
(pl. fimbriae) (see fimbriate)
- plural of fimbria.
- with the margin divided into a fringe of slender lobes (fimbriae).
- fan-shaped or broadly wedge-shaped.
- a winged or ribbed projection.
- having a more or less zigzag or wavy form.
- clothed with woolly hairs, which are disposed in tufts or tend to rub off and adhere in small masses.
- (in Poaceae) the lemma and
palea with enclosed flower;
- (in e.g. Asteraceae) one of many
small flowers in the involucre.
- the sexual reproductive structure of the angiosperms, usually consisting of calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium, borne on an axis.
- having the appearance or nature of a leaf.
- foliage leaves
- ordinary leaves, as opposed to those which have undergone metamorphoses as bracts, petals etc.
- a dry, dehiscent fruit formed of one carpel, dehiscing along one side.
- marked with small pits or depressions on the surface.
- not joined or united.
- free basal placentation
- when the ovules are attached to a central column arising from the base of the loculus within the ovary but not reaching the top.
- free central placentation
- when the ovules are attached to a central column in the centre of the single loculus; the column extends from the base of the loculus to the apex.
- the ripe seeds and structure surrounding them.
- tawny, brownish-yellow or orange.
- functionally unisexual
- flowers in which both male and female parts are present but one is incompletely developed (i.e. functionally male flowers have poorly developed female parts).
- the stalk of the ovule which attaches it to the placenta.
- shaped like a funnel or cone, gradually widening.
- greyish-brown or dark greyish-brown.
- (of solid object) spindle-shaped, i.e. thick in the middle and tapering towards each end.
- the sex cell or nucleus which combines with another gamete to form the fertilised egg.
- a plant which produces gametes.
- when the petals are united either entirely or at the base, into a tube, cup or ring.
- when the sepals are united either entirely or at the base, into a tube, cup or ring.
- bent abruptly like a knee.
- a unit of classification above the rank of species but below the rank of family; a collection of genetically related species.
- a plant with perennating buds located on the plant below the soil.
- bulging or swollen on one side.
- becoming glabrous with increasing age or maturity.
- without hairs.
- a protuberance or depression which secretes a fluid which is often sticky; if stalked, known as a glandular hair.
- furnished with glands.
- pale bluish-green or with a pale bloom.
- a very small spine or bristle, barbed at the tip.
- possessing glochids.
- in the form of a glomerule.
- a compact cluster.
- (in Poaceae) an empty scale at
the base of the spikelet; usually there are two, the lower glume
and the upper glume;
- (in Cyperaceae) a single scale
subtending each flower
- with a sticky exudate.
- finely covered with very small granules.
- a structure formed by the union of the stamens with part of the pistil, as in the Asclepiadaceae.
- arising from a deep depression in the centre of the ovary, between the ovary-lobes, or from the lower part of a simple ovary.
- the female part of the flower.
- a development of the axis between the ovary and the other floral organs, whereby the ovary appears to be stalked.
- a plant adapted to saline habitats.
- when the base of a leaf has two ± triangular lobes which diverge away from the midvein.
- plural of haustorium.
- the modified root with which a parasite enters the tissues of its host.
- a plant which can parasitise another plant but is also capable of growing by itself.
- of or pertaining to a hemiparasite.
- any vascular plant which is not woody.
- possessing the characteristics of a herb.
- bearing separate male and female flowers or florets in an inflorescence or capitulum.
- of different forms.
- producing spores of 2 sizes.
- when the styles and stamens vary in relation to each other by length or position within the flowers of the same plant or plants of the same species.
- a scar left on the seed at the point of attachment.
- covered with long, moderately stiff and not interwoven hairs.
- minutely hirsute.
- rough with stiff hairs.
- minutely hispid.
- a plant which is completely parasitic and has no chlorophyll.
- bearing one kind of flower rather than separate male and female flowers or florets in an inflorescence or capitulum.
- delicate, translucent or transparent tissue.
- a cup-like or tubular structure formed above the base of the ovary with the stamens and perianth parts inserted on the rim.
- a fleshy enlargement of the receptacle or of the stem, below the true fruit. E.g. the Cashew nut.
- (in Cyperaceae) the basal part of the nutlet by which it is attached to the cupule within the glumes. In some species, not differentiated from the nutlet, in others it is distinct.
(cf. epigynous) (cf. perigynous)
- flowers in which the sepals and petals are attached beside or beneath the base of the ovary; with superior ovary.
- with leaves appearing after the flowers.
- overlapping like tiles;
- in a flower bud when one sepal or petal is wholly internal and one wholly external and the others overlapping at the edge only.
- completely submerged or surrounded.
(Click on link to see image(s)) (cf. paripinnate)
- a pinnate leaf with an odd number of leaflets, which has a single leaflet at the end of the leaf rhachis.
- cut; slashed irregularly, ± deeply and sharply; an intermediate condition between toothed and lobed.
- not projecting beyond; not protruding.
- curved inwards.
- numerous and often variable in number.
- not splitting open when ripe or mature.
- having no definite end point e.g. as in an inflorescence which can continue growing along the main axis and does not terminate in a flower.
- any covering, such as hairs, wool, scales etc.
- hardened and toughened.
- of or pertaining to an indusium.
- a piece of tissue ± covering or enclosing a sporangium or group of sporangia.
- inferior ovary
(cf. semi-inferior ovary) (cf. superior ovary)
- an ovary that is below the point of attachment of the sepals, petals and stamens.
- bent inward, turned abruptly inward.
- the flowering portion of a plant.
- attached to, borne upon or growing from.
- the portion of a stem between successive nodes.
- used to describe stipules
situated between the petioles of opposite leaves (e.g. in the
- not continuous.
- used to describe stipules situated between the petiole and the stem.
- within the stamens.
- introduced (species)
- introduced to a region deliberately or accidentally by man.
- a whorl of bracteoles.
- of or pertaining to an involucre.
- bracts forming a ± calyx-like structure around or just below the base of a usually condensed inflorescence (e.g. Asteraceae).
- inrolled; with the edges of the leaves rolled inwards by both margins so as to expose the abaxial surface.
- (of flowers) when the styles and stamens do not vary in relation to each other by length or position.
- (in general) a projecting ridge, resembling the keel of a boat, running the length of an organ on the outer or under surface;
- the loosely united, lower petals
of the Papilionoideae;
- the lower petal in the Polygalaceae.
- with a longitudinal ridge running along the under surface of a flat or convex structure.
- (in Orchidaceae) the central petal, which is often lobed or spurred, and hence differs from the other two petals;
- (in Zingiberaceae) a large petaloid, sometimes lobed, object which together with the stamen forms the androecium.
- torn; irregularly cleft or cut.
- a slender lobe.
- plural of lacinia.
- deeply and irregularly divided into slender lobes.
- with empty air space or gap within a tissue.
- a thin plate or layer.
- plural of lamella.
- having the form of a lamella.
- the flattened and expanded part of a leaf or petal.
- covered with soft, flexuous, intertwined hairs.
- a plane shape which is narrowly egg-shaped in outline with the broadest part near the base.
- on the side or along the margin.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- a sap with milk-like appearance.
- loose, not dense.
- an organ originating from and attached to a stem, usually with a short stalk attached to a flat lamina.
- a leaf-like part of a compound leaf.
- (in Poaceae) the lower of the 2 bracts (the other is the palea) enclosing the flower
- small corky areas on the bark often with a colour different from the surrounding bark.
- bearing lenticels.
- clothed with scales.
- a woody climber.
- with the shape of a tongue or strap; possessing a ligule.
- (in Poaceae) a thin membranous
or rim-like structure found at the top of the leaf sheath;
strap-shaped corolla found in the florets of certain Asteraceae;
- (in some Pteridophyta) a small flap of tissue
on the adaxial side of the leaf.
- the upper, usually flattened and broad, part of a sepal or petal, above the claw.
- long and narrow, the sides parallel or nearly so.
(adj. lithophytic) (cf. epiphyte)
- a plant growing on rocks.
- of or pertaining to a lithophyte.
- any division of an organ not completely separated from the next.
- plural of loculus.
- a chamber of an ovary or fruit which contains the ovules or seeds.
- (in Poaceae) minute scales, usually 2, outside the stamens and ovary; possibly vestiges of the perianth.
- a pinnatifid leaf with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes.
- with small nipple-shaped projections
- woody plants growing in muddy swamps which are inundated by tides.
- (of hairs) attached by the middle with the two branches pointing in opposite directions and often lying appressed to the surface.
- of a thin texture and translucent.
- (in Orchidaceae) a chin-like projection formed by the united bases of the lateral sepals and an extended column-foot.
- a single part of a schizocarp.
(cf. endocarp) (cf. exocarp)
- the middle layer when 3 layers are present in the wall or pericarp of a fruit, often fleshy.
- the principal, usually central, vein of a leaf or other organ.
- miombo woodland
- woodland type dominated by trees of the species of Brachystegia, Julbernardia or Isoberlinia; an important vegetation type in south-central Africa.
- with the filaments of the stamens in a single group or bundle.
- (of herbs) flowering and bearing fruit only once and then dying.
- plural of monochasium.
- of or pertaining to a monochasium.
(adj. monochasial) (cf. dichasium) (pl. monochasia)
- a one-sided cyme, i.e. where only 1 branch develops from under each successive terminal flower.
- a plant having a single cotyledon or seed-leaf.
- a plant with unisexual flowers, the male and female flowers borne separately on the same plant.
- with the dehiscence line unbranched, as in bilateral spores.
- having only 1 form.
- (of branching) where the main axis remains dominant so that all secondary shoots are clearly lateral.
- having only one representative; used especially of a genus with only one species.
- a gluey, viscous liquid.
- bearing mucilage.
- a short narrow point, projecting from the apex.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- provided with a mucro.
- minutely mucronate.
- rough, with sharp tubercles or protuberances.
- blunt and without a point.
- plants which obtain their nutrients through a mycorrhizal fungus that is attached to the root of a photosynthetic plant. Such species is neither a parasite (directly attached to the host) nor a true saprophyte (directly obtaining nutrients from dead matter).
(opp. introduced (species))
- a plant which arose or became present in a region by natural means.
- an introduced plant which has become self-perpetuating in the flora area.
- producing nectar.
- a glandular structure which secretes a sugary liquid (nectar), either associated with a flower (floral nectary) or elsewhere on the plant (extra-floral nectary).
- the principal or more conspicuous veins or ribs of a leaf, sepal or petal.
- (of flower) with functional stamens and functional pistils both 0.
- the place on a stem at which a leaf or other organs arise.
- having nodes, knots or swellings.
- a 1-seeded, indehiscent fruit, with a hard dry outer covering.
- a small nut.
- a prefix meaning "opposite", "inverse" or "against". When used as a prefix before a word describing the shape of an organ, it means that the organ is attached to its stalk at the opposite end to the usual case.
- a cordate leaf, but attached at the unlobed end, so that the apex is notched.
- the inverse of lanceolate.
- transversely broadly elliptic.
- (of leaf) not
symmetrical about the midrib at the base of the leaf.
- a plane shape almost rectangular in outline but with rounded ends.
- the inverse of ovate.
- the inverse of ovoid.
- not evident or apparent; rudimentary.
- a blunt or rounded end, the margins forming an angle greater than 50°.
- a tubular stipule, forming a membranous sheath around the stem near the leaf base.
- plural of ochrea.
- of or pertaining to an operculum.
- a lid or cover which comes off by a transverse line of dehiscence.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- of leaves or branches when two are
borne at the same node on opposite sides of the stem;
other organs (e.g. stamens) when opposite or placed in front of
the petals instead of alternating with them.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- an opening or pore.
- that part of the female part of the flower which contains the ovules and eventually becomes the fruit.
- (of a plane shape) egg-shaped in outline with the broadest part near the base.
- (of a solid shape), ovate in outline, with a circular transverse section.
- the immature seed in the ovary before fertilisation.
- the raised part of the lower lip of a corolla which closes or almost closes the throat.
- the bract, usually membranous, on the
adaxial side of the floret in the Poaceae.
- pale in colour.
- (of a leaf) a leaf which is not truly compound in which the lobes are arranged like the fingers of a hand.
- the palmate equivalent of pinnatifid.
- the palmate equivalent of pinnatilobed.
- the palmate equivalent of pinnatipartite.
- the palmate equivalent of pinnatisect.
- a compound raceme or cyme, the
primary branches being themselves branched;
the Cyperaceae) an inflorescence in which the culm has leaves spread
along it and flowering branches arise from the axils of upper leaves
- in the form of a panicle.
- (of a pollen grain) with apertures scattered over the whole surface.
- (of flowers) resembling those of the Leguminosae subfamily Papilionoideae.
- a minute nipple-like protuberance.
- plural of papilla.
- covered with papillae.
- the ring of hairs or scales around
the top of the fruit in the Asteraceae.
- sterile hairs, sometimes clavate or with an enlarged apical cell, occurring among sporangia in a sorus.
- a plant which derives its food wholly or partially (hemiparasite) from other living plants to which it is directly attached.
- of or pertaining to a parasite.
- parietal placentation
- when the ovules are attached to the inner surface of the peripheral or outside wall of the ovary, or the outer wall of the loculus.
(Click on link to see image(s)) (cf. imparipinnate)
- a pinnate leaf with an even number of leaflets and no single leaflet at the end.
- shaped like a small dish, circular and with a rim.
- spreading ± at right-angles.
- divided at the edge to form many parallel parts like the teeth of a comb.
- used for leaves which are palmately divided, with the lateral lobes again partially divided.
- the stalk of a single flower or of a spikelet.
- possessing a pedicel, i.e. stalked.
- the stalk of an inflorescence or part of an inflorescence.
- possessing a peduncle.
- an organ, the stalk of which is attached to a flat surface and not the margin; the attachment is not necessarily central.
- hanging down or drooping.
- with a coma shaped ± like a pencil or brush.
- a fleshy fruit with hard outer rind and without septa or separate chambers within, as in the Cucurbitaceae.
- living for 3 or more growing seasons.
- the outer sterile whorls or envelopes of a flower, made up of identical perianth segments, or of two different kinds of perianth segments: sepals (calyx) or petals (corolla). See also tepal.
- the wall of the ripened ovary or fruit (between the loculi and the outer surface); it may be of one or as many as 3 layers called the exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp.
(cf. epigynous) (cf. hypogynous)
- (of flower) with perianth and stamens arising from a hypanthium that is not adnate to the ovary.
- remaining attached, not falling off.
- an individual segment or member of the corolla.
- of or pertaining to a petal.
- like a petal in colour and form; may be applied to bracts, sepals or stamens.
- possessing a petiole.
- the stalk of a leaf.
- possessing a petiolule.
- the stalk of a leaflet.
- the part of the vascular system made up of living cells that function primarily in the conduction of food; the inner bark.
- (of Asteraceae) an involucral bract.
- a green flattened petiole resembling a leaf.
- with long soft hairs.
- pin flower
(cf. thrum flower)
- In heterostylous plants, the flower type having the longer style.
- the primary division of a pinnately compound leaf.
- plural of pinna.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- a leaf composed of more than 3 leaflets arranged in two rows along a common stalk or rhachis.
- with the margin divided more than halfway to the midvein or centre and forming pinnately arranged lobes.
- with the margin divided to about half the distance to the midvein or centre and forming pinnate lobes.
- with the leaf divided almost to the midvein or centre and forming pinnate lobes.
- with the leaf divided to the midvein or centre and forming pinnate lobes.
- the primary segment of a pinna.
- the individual female structure which contains the ovule and will produce the seeds.
- a reduced non-functioning pistil that does not produce seeds; often present in functionally male flowers.
- the part of the ovary, sometimes but not always, thickened or raised, to which the ovules are attached.
- convex on one side and flat on the other.
- longitudinally folded or pleated.
- feathered, as bristles which have fine hairs on each side, e.g. the pappus of some Asteraceae.
- (in the Fabaceae) a dry dehiscent fruit consisting of one carpel, usually opening along the two sutures into two halves.
- dust-like grains contained within an anther.
- (in Orchidaceae) the whole structure of the pollinia, stipes or caudicle and viscidium.
- plural of pollinium.
- a mass of waxy pollen grains transported as a single unit, as in many Orchidaceae.
- when a plant or different plants of the same species have both bisexual and unisexual flowers.
- occurring in many forms.
- when the petals are free i.e. not united.
- when the sepals are free i.e. not united.
- a small opening.
- in position nearest to the axis.
- on the posterior side, next to the axis.
- a small sharp outgrowth from the bark or surface.
- (in Cucurbitaceae) a leaf-like bract
at the base of the inflorescence
- a projection or projecting part.
- with stems lying along the ground.
- (of a pollen grain) having a polar axis of greater length than the equatorial diameter.
- bearing adventitious buds (q.v.) on the leaves or in the flowers, capable of rooting and forming separate plants.
- a much reduced leaf or bract.
- lying closely along the surface of the ground.
- a small, usually flat, plant body not clearly differentiated into stems and leaves, formed by the germination of a spore.
- the part or end nearest to the base or point of attachment.
- covered with a whitish wax or very fine powder.
- an aril-like structure found with the seeds of Commiphora.
- a prefix meaning false.
- the bulb-like stem of certain orchids.
- a petiole-like structure, typically separating a leaf sheath from a leaf lamina.
- (in Amaranthaceae) a staminode-like structure.
- minutely pubescent.
- with soft short hairs.
- of or pertaining to a pulvinus.
- a swelling, shaped like a cushion or pad, round or flattened, usually occurring at the base of the leaf or petiole.
- dotted or shallowly pitted, often with glands.
- ending in a sharp rigid point.
- the stone of a drupe, consisting of one or few seeds with a hard covering, enclosed in fleshy tissue.
- a plant able to tolerate fire or needing fire to stimulate flowering.
- of or pertaining to a pyrophyte.
- an inflorescence whose growing points continue to add to the inflorescence and in which there is usually no terminal flower The youngest flowers are therefore nearest the apex. The flowers are borne along a single axis and are stalked.
- arranged in a raceme.
- a capitulum of the Asteraceae with marginal, female or neuter, ligulate ray florets and central bisexual or male, tubular disk florets.
- (of leaves) arising from the base of a stem or from a rhizome.
- the embryonic root; the part of the developing embryo that will produce the root.
- the part of the stalk of the ovule (funicle) that is united or coherent to the outer wall of the ovule and forms a ridge on the surface of the seeds.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- (in Apiaceae) one of the primary branches of a compound umbel;
- (in Asteraceae) the strap-shaped extension borne in some cases by the marginal
- ray floret
- a type of floret in the Asteraceae.
- the end of the flower stalk to which the floral parts are attached.
- receptacular scales
- bracts or bristles subtending individual florets in the heads of the Asteraceae.
- curved backwards.
- bent backwards or downwards.
- kidney-shaped, i.e. with a notch at the base and rounded at the apex.
- when the margin is slightly uneven or wavy by turning inwards and outwards but to a lesser extent than sinuate.
- twisted through 180°, as in the pedicel and ovary in most species of Orchidaceae; upside-down.
- a network or net-like arrangement of veins or fibres.
- plural of retinaculum.
- (in Acanthaceae) the persistent
- (in Asclepiadaceae and Orchidaceae) the structure to which the pollinium is attached.
- pointing backwards or downwards; backwardly-directed.
- with margins rolled outwards towards the abaxial side.
- plural of rhachis.
- a small axis or rhachis; the central axis of the spikelet in Poaceae and Cyperaceae.
- the principal axis of an inflorescence above the peduncle;
- the axis on which the leaflets of a compound leaf are inserted.
- plural of rhipidium.
- a cymose inflorescence with branches alternating from one side of the vertical axis to the other, normally flattened in one plane and fan-shaped.
- possessing a rhizome.
- a horizontal stem, on or under the ground, lasting more than one growing season.
- leaves crowded together on account of the very short internodes.
- a small beak;
- (in Orchidaceae flowers) a projection from the upper edge of the stigma.
- in a rosette.
- wheel shaped; a corolla with very short tube and lobes spreading out at right angles to the axis.
- a leaf shape intermediate between broadly elliptic and circular.
- growing amongst rubbish or rubble; of waste or weedy places.
- incompletely developed.
- rusty or reddish-brown.
- with wrinkles or grooves in the surface.
- (applied to the upper lip of some Acanthaceae) a fine wrinkle or fold.
- minutely rugose.
- with teeth pointing backwards towards the base.
- forming a small sac or bag.
- arrow-shaped; the base has two acute lobes which point backwards to the base of the petiole.
- with a narrow tube opening suddenly into a wide cup-shaped mouth.
- a dry indehiscent fruit, part of the wall of which forms a flattened wing. Example: Pterolobium stellatum.
- a plant which derives its food
wholly or partially (partial saprophyte) from dead organic
matter. According to this page, there are no saprophytic flowering plants; species normally referred to as saprophytic are myco-heterotrophic.
- with long slender stolons or whip-like branches.
- minutely rough.
- rough to the touch, usually because of the presence of very short harsh hairs.
- a leafless peduncle arising from ground level (usually from a basal rosette of leaves) in acaulescent plants.
- possessing a scape, or scape-like.
- membranous, thin and dry, not green.
- a dry fruit breaking up into 1-seeded nut-like parts (each part called a mericarp), as in many genera in the Malvaceae.
- coiled like a scorpion's tail (in one plane).
- a community dominated by shrubs.
- all directed to one side.
- a reproductive unit formed from the fertilised ovule.
- a prefix meaning partially.
- partially amplexicaul.
- semi-inferior ovary
(cf. inferior ovary)
- an ovary which is in part united with and in part free from the calyx and corolla.
- in the sense of.
- an individual segment or member of the calyx.
- sepal-like, i.e. green and herbaceous.
- plural of septum.
- divided by septa.
- the form of dehiscence in which the septa are separated from the valves.
- a partition or cross-wall.
- with silky appressed hairs.
- with a toothed margin, the teeth more or less regular and pointing forwards.
- minutely serrate.
- without a stalk.
- a bristle or stiff hair.
- shaped like a bristle.
- plural of seta.
- covered with stout rigid bristles.
- minutely setose.
- an area of cultivated ground; a farm or plantation.
- a tube-like structure sometimes split
longitudinally for part or whole of the length with the two
margins overlapping, that encloses an organ either completely or
partially, e.g. a leaf-sheath of Poaceae.
- a woody plant, typically with several main stems, that at maturity does not attain tree height (5 m).
- a small shrub.
- a dehiscent, 2-valved, 2-celled capsule less than 3 times as long as wide.
- plural of silicula.
- a dehiscent, 2-valved, 2-celled capsule more than 3 times as long as wide.
(cf. siliqua )
- plural of siliqua.
- (of a hair)
unbranched, with or without a terminal gland;
- (of a leaf) not
separated into leaflets, although the leaf lamina may be deeply
- when the margin is uneven or wavy by turning inwards and outwards but not deeply enough to be lobed (i.e. in and out, not up and down).
- the depression between 2 lobes or teeth.
- used in the sense of 'not rough' (sometimes elsewhere used to mean glabrous).
- of or pertaining to a sorus.
- of a dull, dirty or muddy colour.
- plural of sorus.
- a group of sporangia.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- an inflorescence with the flowers borne on or
sunken into a thick and often fleshy spike-like axis as in the
- resembling or bearing a spathe.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- a large bract or pair of bracts subtending and often enclosing a flower or inflorescence.
- (in Podostemaceae) a capsule-like structure enclosing the flower buds.
- a small spathe enclosing part of an inflorescence; typically (in some Poaceae) surrounding a single raceme or a pair of racemes.
- the basic unit in a taxonomic classification denoting a group of organisms that appear more similar to each other than to any other group and are usually assumed to be able to interbreed and produce fully fertile progeny.
- plural of species.
- arranged in a spike.
- spike-like in appearance and not necessarily with the true structure of a spike.
- a simple racemose inflorescence with sessile flowers or spikelets.
- a small spike in which the
individual flowers are subtended by and enclosed in bracts; found in
the Poaceae and Cyperaceae.
- a hard sharp-pointed structure, often long and narrow.
- plural of sporangium.
- a structure containing spores.
- a small asexual reproductive body, usually unicellular, and always without tissue differentiation.
- an organ enclosing the sorus or sori in heterosporous ferns, hardened in Marsilea, membranous in Azolla and Salvinia.
- a leaf bearing or subtending sporangia.
- a plant which produces spores.
- a slender usually hollow, sac-like extension of some part of the flower.
- bearing a spur.
- (in Ascolepis) the perianth scale in the spikelet.
- plural of squamella.
- spreading or recurved at some point above the base.
- one of the male reproductive organs of the plant.
- staminal tube
- filaments united so as to form a tube.
- a modified stamen that produces no pollen.
- plural of staminode.
- (in Leguminosae subfamily Papilionoideae) the large adaxial petal of pea-like
- (in Iridaceae) the narrow inner petals of Iris and other genera.
- star-shaped; often applied to stellate hairs which have several branches radiating from a central point.
- the main axis of the plant or a branch of the main axis which (at first) produces leaves at the nodes.
- not producing viable seeds or pollen.
- the receptive surface, usually at the top of the style, of the female part of the flower, to which the pollen grains adhere.
- of or pertaining to a stigma.
- stilt root
- a supporting root which arises from lower nodes above the ground, usually on weak or tall grasses which require extra support.
- the stalk supporting a carpel or
- (in ferns) the stalk of the frond.
- a structure similar to a stipule but occurring at the base of the leaflets of a compound leaf.
- plural of stipel.
- of or pertaining to a stipel.
- supported on a stipe.
- looking like a stipe.
- of or pertaining to a stipule.
- possessing stipules.
- a scale-like or leaf-like appendage usually at the base of the petiole.
- a short-lived, horizontal stem, either above, on or below the
surface of the ground, rooting at one or more nodes;
- (in the
Cyperaceae) long and slender scale-covered subterranean rhizomes
ending in buds which give rise to new plants.
- bearing striations.
- fine, parallel, longitudinal lines, grooves or ridges.
- with stiff appressed straight hairs.
- minutely strigose.
- of or pertaining to a strobilus.
- plural of strobilus.
- a fir-cone, or an inflorescence or fruit that resembles one by having large and imbricated scales.
- bearing a strophiole.
- an appendage to the hilum of the seed.
- that part of the female part of the flower connecting the stigma to the ovary.
- a disk-like enlargement at the base of the style.
- a prefix meaning "slightly, "somewhat", "almost" or "below".
(cf. glabrescent) (cf. glabrous)
- very slightly, but persistently, hairy.
- almost marginal; positioned very close to the margin.
- almost but not quite opposite.
- a plant with a woody base to the stems but with upper part of the stems herbaceous.
- having the characteristics of a subshrub.
- a unit of classification below the rank of species and above the rank of variety, often used for grouping geographical variants of a species.
- to extend under, or be opposite to, another structure.
- flat and narrow, tapering from the base to a sharp tip.
- fleshy and juicy, thick and soft within.
- of or pertaining to a suffrutex.
- a shrublet, producing leafy and flowering shoots each year from a woody underground stock.
- plural of suffrutex.
- grooved or furrowed.
- on the surface.
- superior ovary
(cf. inferior ovary) (cf. semi-inferior ovary)
- an ovary that is borne above the attachment of the sepals, petals and stamens.
- arising above an axil.
- the line along which two parts have been united or the line along which a structure splits open.
- (of branching) where the terminal bud ceases to grow (or its function and position are taken another structure such as a flower) and growth is continued by a lateral bud or branch.
(Click on link to see image(s))
- an androecium of a male flower with united anthers.
- a structure consisting of several united, usually fleshy, fruits.
- plural of taxon.
- a taxonomic entity of any rank.
- an organ to assist a plant to climb, formed from the whole or part of a stem, leaf or petiole.
- a general term for the parts of the perianth (i.e. the petals and sepals), often used when the petals and sepals cannot be readily distinguished.
- circular or oval in cross-section, without grooves or ridges.
- borne at the end of a stem and limiting its growth.
- in threes (e.g. 'leaves ternate' means leaves in whorls of 3).
(cf. aquatic) (cf. epiphytic)
- on or in the ground.
- having a chequered pattern.
- the outer coat of a seed.
- a group of 4 pollen grains or spores.
- plural of thallus.
- a vegetative body not differentiated into stems and leaves.
- a sharp-pointed branch.
- the orifice of a gamopetalous
corolla or gamosepalous calyx;
- the area of the corolla
between the limb and the tube;
- (of Poaceae) the open part
of the junction between the leaf sheath and its lamina.
- thrum flower
(cf. pin flower)
- In heterostylous plants, the flower type having the shorter style.
- a panicle, usually compact, with an indeterminate main axis but with cymose sub-axes.
- of or pertaining to a thyrse.
- slightly tomentose.
- with a tomentum.
- a dense felty mass of matted or tangled hairs.
- a woody plant, typically with one main trunk, that at maturity reaches at least 5 m.
- having ± the shape of a triangle.
- a unit of classification above the level of genus and below that of family.
- (of a pollen grain) having 3 elongate longitudinal apertures.
- of a solid body, triangular in section but obtusely angled.
- (e.g. of spores) having three scar lines forming a Y, or basically tetrahedral.
- having three forms.
- of a solid body, triangular in section and acutely angled.
- with the base or apex at right angles to the midvein as if cut across at the bottom or top.
- the fused part of a corolla or calyx.
- a swollen portion of a stolon or rhizome.
- a swelling, knob or thickened protuberance on a surface, sometimes found at the base of a hair.
- covered with tubercles.
- resembling a tuber or producing tubers.
- a loose, compact or dense cluster of vegetative shoots and/or stems.
- in the form of a tuft.
- of a bulb or corm, a loose membranous or fibrous outer skin which does not develop from the epidermis.
- possessing a tunic.
- top-shaped; cone-shaped but with the broad portion up and the pointed portion down.
- a reduced branch, with highly modified photosynthetic leaves and stipules, borne in a leaves axil or at a stem apex.
- climbing by winding the stem around the support.
- an inflorescence in which the pedicels all arise from a common point.
- in the form of an umbel.
- devoid of thorns, spines or prickles.
- with a hook at the end.
- wavy in a plane at right angles to the surface (i.e. up and down not in and out).
- contracted at base into a claw.
(cf. bisexual) (cf. functionally unisexual)
- producing either male or female gametes but not both; having either functional stamens or functional ovaries but not both.
- shaped like a water pot or urn, with a rounded base and short broad tube that is narrowed above and slightly expanded at the very top.
- a flask-like or bottle-shaped object enclosing a female flower in the genus Carex.
- when the edges of petals or sepals meet without overlapping.
- one of the parts produced by the splitting of a capsule when ripe.
- a unit of classification below the level of species; varieties are separated on the basis of form and colour but the varieties are usually not geographically separated and individuals of different varieties can freely interbreed.
- vascular bundle
- a strand or unit of phloem or xylem, with or without a surrounding sheath, which carries water and nutrients.
- vascular plants
- species of plants which belong to the two major divisions, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta.
- a small strand of vascular tissue.
- with a dense indumentum of fine, soft, straight hairs; velvety.
- the arrangement of the veins in a leaf.
- covered with rough wart-like projections.
- (of anthers) turning freely on its support or stalk.
- a sac, bladder or cavity, usually small and filled with gas or fluid.
- a trace or mark left by a structure no longer developed but present in ancestral forms.
- covered with long, soft, weak hairs.
- long slender and straight; wand-like.
- plural of viscidium.
- (in Orchidaceae) a viscid part of the rostellum, which is clearly defined and removed with the pollinia as a unit, and serves to attach the pollinia to an insect or other agent.
- resinous canal on the fruit of some Apiaceae.
- plural of vitta.
- seasonally moist or wet, sloping, shallow, grass-covered depression.
- more than 2 organs of the same kind arising at the same level.
- (in general) any flat expansion of
- each of the two lateral petals in the flowers of the
- each of the two inner, usually petaloid,
sepals in the flowers of the Polygalaceae.
- possessing a wing.
- adapted to a dry climate or habitat.
- the principal cells of the wood; important in water movement.
(Click on link to see image(s)) (cf. actinomorphic)
- applied to flowers having bilateral symmetry, so that the corolla may be divided equally only along 1 plane of symmetry.
Number of glossary items: 857
Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-17
Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M.
. Flora of Zimbabwe: Glossary.
http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/glossary.php, retrieved 27 March 2017