Spermatophyta: Monocotyledonae: Asparagales

Orchidaceae - Orchid family

Ball, J.S. (1978) Southern African Epiphytic Orchids. Conservation Press, Johannesburg.

Ball, J.S. (2009) Terrestrial African Orchids, A Selected Review.

Fibeck, W. & Dare, M. (1993) Terrestrial Orchids in Zimbabwe. Excelsa 16 47-71

La Croix, I. & Cribb, P.J. (1995) Orchidaceae (Part 1) Flora Zambesiaca 11(1)

La Croix, I. & Cribb, P.J. (1998) Orchidaceae (Part 2) Flora Zambesiaca 11(2)

La Croix, I. et al. (1991) Orchids of Malawi A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam

McMurtry, D., Grobler, L., Grobler, J. & Burns, S. (2008) Field Guide to the ORCHIDS of Northern South Africa and Swaziland Umdaus Press, PO Box 11059 Hatfield 0028 South Africa

Schelpe, E.A.C.L.E. (1976) A Provisional Checklist of the Orchidaceae of Mozambique South African Journal of Botany 42(4)

Description of the family

Perennial, terrestrial or epiphytic herbs with rhizomes, tubers or corms. Stems sometimes swollen at the base (pseudobulbs). Leaves alternate or rarely opposite (e.g. some spp. of Disperis), entire. Inflorescence a spike, raceme or panicle. Flowers bracteate, bisexual, zygomorphic, usually twisted through 180° (resupinate), occasionally not twisted or twisted through 360°. Perianth epigynous; perianth segments 6, usually free, arranged in 2 whorls; both whorls similar or outer whorl (sepals) calyx-like and inner whorl (petals) corolla-like or very reduced. Central segment of outer whorl (dorsal sepal) often different in shape and size to the lateral; central segment of inner whorl (lip or labellum) often lobed or spurred. Stamen 1, united with the style to form the column. Pollen aggregated into masses (pollinia). Ovary inferior, 1-locular. Stigmas 3, fertile or more usually 2 lateral fertile, the other an outgrowth (rostellum), lying between the anthers and the lateral stigmas. Part of the rostellum is often modified into sticky discs (viscidia) to which the pollinia are attached by 1-2 stalks (stipes). Whole structure of pollinia, stipes and viscidia form the pollinarium. Fruit a capsule, often longitudinally ribbed. Seeds minute, very numerous, without endosperm.

Worldwide: 788 genera and 18,500 species, cosmopolitan.

Zimbabwe: 54 genera and 358 taxa.

Cynorkis kassneriana

Links to genera:     View: living plant images - herbarium specimen images - all images for this family

Acampe Lindl.Description, Image
Aerangis Rchb. f.Description, Image
Aeranthes Lindl.Description
Angraecopsis Kraenzl.Description, Image
Angraecum BoryDescription, Image
Ansellia Lindl.Description, Image
Bolusiella Schltr.Description, Image
Bonatea Willd.Description, Image
Brachycorythis Lindl.Description, Image
Brownleea Lindl.Description, Image
Bulbophyllum ThouarsDescription, Image
Calanthe R.Br.Description, Image
Calyptrochilum Kraenzl.Description, Image
Centrostigma Schltr.Description
Chaseella Summerh.Description, Image
Cheirostylis BlumeDescription
Corymborkis ThouarsDescription, Image
Cynorkis ThouarsDescription, Image
Cyrtorchis Schltr.Description, Image
Diaphananthe Schltr.Description, Image
Didymoplexis Griff.Description
Disa P.J. BergiusDescription, Image
Disperis Sw.Description, Image
Eulophia Lindl.Description, Image
Gastrodia R. Br.Description, Image
Habenaria Willd.Description, Image
Holothrix Lindl.Description
Jumellea Schltr.Description, Image
Liparis Rich.Description, Image
Malaxis Sol. ex Sw.Description
Microcoelia Lindl.Description, Image
Mystacidium Lindl.Description, Image
Neobolusia Schltr.Description
Nervilia Comm. ex Gaudich.Description, Image
Oberonia Lindl.Description, Image
Oeceoclades Lindl.Description
Oligophyton H.P. LinderDescription
Orthochilus Hochst. ex A. Rich.Image
Phaius Lour.Description
Platycoryne Rchb. f.Description, Image
Platylepis A. RichDescription
Polystachya Hook.Description, Image
Rangaeris Summerh.Description, Image
Satyrium Sw.Description, Image
Schizochilus Sond.Description, Image
Solenangis Schltr.Description, Image
Stenoglottis Lindl.Description, Image
Stolzia Schltr.Description, Image
Summerhayesia P.J. CribbDescription
Taeniophyllum BlumeDescription, Image
Tridactyle Schltr.Description, Image
Vanilla Mill.Description, Image
Ypsilopus Summerh.Description, Image
Zeuxine Lindl.Description

Other sources of information about Orchidaceae:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Orchidaceae
Flora of Caprivi: Orchidaceae
Flora of Caprivi: cultivated Orchidaceae
Flora of Malawi: Orchidaceae
Flora of Mozambique: Orchidaceae
Flora of Zambia: Orchidaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Orchidaceae

External websites:

African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Orchidaceae
BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Orchidaceae
EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Orchidaceae
GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility): Orchidaceae
Google: Web - Images - Scholar
iNaturalist: Orchidaceae
IPNI (International Plant Names Index): Orchidaceae
JSTOR Plant Science: Orchidaceae
Mansfeld World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops: Orchidaceae
Wikipedia: Orchidaceae
Plants of the World Online: Orchidaceae
Tropicos: Orchidaceae

Copyright: Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Meg Coates Palgrave, 2002-24

Hyde, M.A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. (2024). Flora of Zimbabwe: Family page: Orchidaceae.
https://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/speciesdata/family.php?family_id=161, retrieved 20 May 2024

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